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Biochemical assays are analytical tools created for in vitro applications. They can be used to characterize, track and quantify a variety of biomolecules. These include small molecules, such as GSH and NAD, as well as macromolecules like proteins.
Biochemical detection systems broadly fall into three categories. There are colorimetric or chromogenic assays, which undergo a visible color change. There are fluorometric or fluorogenic assays, which emit signals only upon excitation by a light source. And there are luminescent assays, which emit light by way of a chemical reaction.