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Chemical structure for (Ac-PAL)2R110
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Unit Size: Cat No: Price (USD): Qty:
1 mg 13467 $95

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Ex/Em (nm)498/520
Storage Freeze (<-15 °C)
Minimize light exposure
Category Enzyme Detection
Peptidases and Proteases
Related Secondary Reagents
The non-fluorescent R110 substrates generate the bright green fluorescent rhodamine 110 product that has Ex/Em = 494/521 nm, and can be easily detected with a FITC filter set. In general, R110 substrates are much more sensitive than the AMC-, AFC- or 4-nitroaniline-based substrates. This R110 substrate is used for monitoring the protease activities of the proteasome. The most common form of the proteasome is known as the 26S proteasome that contains one 20S core particle structure and two 19S regulatory caps. All 20S particles consist of four stacked heptameric ring structures that are themselves composed of two different types of subunits; alpha subunits are structural in nature, whereas beta subunits are predominantly catalytic. The outer two rings in the stack consist of seven alpha subunits each, which serve as docking domains for the regulatory particles and the alpha subunits N-termini form a gate that blocks unregulated access of substrates to the interior cavity. The inner two rings each consist of seven beta subunits and contain the protease active sites that perform the proteolysis reactions. AAT Bioquest offers a group of R110 substrates for monitoring the protease activities of the proteasome at different subsites, i.e., (i) sub-sites: beta1c, Z-LLE-R110; beta2c, Ac-KQL-R110; beta5c, Ac-WLA-R110; beta1i, Ac-PAL-R110; beta2i, Ac-KQL-R110; beta5c, Ac-WLA-R110 and Suc-LLVY-R110; and beta5i, Ac-ANW-R110. The protease activity is measured by monitoring the R110 liberation over time using excitation and emission wavelengths of 490 nm and 520 nm respectively.

Common stock solution preparation

Table 1. Volume of DMSO needed to reconstitute specific mass of (Ac-PAL)2R110 to given concentration. Note that volume is only for preparing stock solution. Refer to sample experimental protocol for appropriate experimental/physiological buffers.

Molarity calculator

Table 2. Enter any two values (mass, volume, concentration) to calculate the third.

Mass Molecular weight Volume Concentration Moles
/ = x =

Spectrum Advanced Spectrum Viewer

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Wavelength (nm)

References & Citations

Diabetogenic agent alloxan is a proteasome inhibitor
Authors: Wenjuan Zhou, Lingling Wei, Ting Xiao, Chunyou Lai, Min Peng, Lingli Xu, Xiangwei Luo, Shaoping Deng, Fengxue Zhang
Journal: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (2017): 400--406

Delineation of molecular pathways involved in cardiomyopathies caused by troponin T mutations
Authors: Jennifer E Gilda, Xianyin Lai, Frank A Witzmann, Aldrin V Gomes
Journal: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics (2016): 1962--1981

Diclofenac induces proteasome and mitochondrial dysfunction in murine cardiomyocytes and hearts
Authors: Rajeshwary Ghosh, Sumanta K Goswami, Luis Felipe BB Feitoza, Bruce Hammock, Aldrin V Gomes
Journal: International Journal of Cardiology (2016): 923--935

Advanced-glycation-end-product-induced formation of immunoproteasomes: involvement of RAGE and Jak2/STAT1
Authors: Stefanie Grimm, Christiane Ott, Melanie Hörlacher, Daniela Weber, Annika Höhn, Tilman Grune
Journal: Biochemical Journal (2012): 127--139

Additional Documents

Safety Data Sheet (SDS)

1. Enzyme Probes & Assay Kits

Certificate of Analysis