AAT Bioquest


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Physical properties
Molecular weight977.11
Spectral properties
Extinction coefficient (cm -1 M -1)80000
Excitation (nm)500
Emission (nm)522
Storage, safety and handling
H-phraseH303, H313, H333
Hazard symbolXN
Intended useResearch Use Only (RUO)
R-phraseR20, R21, R22
StorageFreeze (< -15 °C); Minimize light exposure


See also: Proteases
Molecular weight
Extinction coefficient (cm -1 M -1)
Excitation (nm)
Emission (nm)
The non-fluorescent R110 substrates generate the bright green fluorescent rhodamine 110 product that has Ex/Em = 494/521 nm, and can be easily detected with a FITC filter set. In general, R110 substrates are much more sensitive than the AMC-, AFC- or 4-nitroaniline-based substrates. This R110 substrate is used for monitoring the protease activities of the proteasome. The most common form of the proteasome is known as the 26S proteasome that contains one 20S core particle structure and two 19S regulatory caps. All 20S particles consist of four stacked heptameric ring structures that are themselves composed of two different types of subunits; alpha subunits are structural in nature, whereas beta subunits are predominantly catalytic. The outer two rings in the stack consist of seven alpha subunits each, which serve as docking domains for the regulatory particles and the alpha subunits N-termini form a gate that blocks unregulated access of substrates to the interior cavity. The inner two rings each consist of seven beta subunits and contain the protease active sites that perform the proteolysis reactions. AAT Bioquest offers a group of R110 substrates for monitoring the protease activities of the proteasome at different subsites, i.e., (i) sub-sites: beta1c, Z-LLE-R110; beta2c, Ac-KQL-R110; beta5c, Ac-WLA-R110; beta1i, Ac-PAL-R110; beta2i, Ac-KQL-R110; beta5c, Ac-WLA-R110 and Suc-LLVY-R110; and beta5i, Ac-ANW-R110. The protease activity is measured by monitoring the R110 liberation over time using excitation and emission wavelengths of 490 nm and 520 nm respectively.


Common stock solution preparation

Table 1. Volume of DMSO needed to reconstitute specific mass of (Ac-PAL)2R110 to given concentration. Note that volume is only for preparing stock solution. Refer to sample experimental protocol for appropriate experimental/physiological buffers.

0.1 mg0.5 mg1 mg5 mg10 mg
1 mM102.343 µL511.713 µL1.023 mL5.117 mL10.234 mL
5 mM20.469 µL102.343 µL204.685 µL1.023 mL2.047 mL
10 mM10.234 µL51.171 µL102.343 µL511.713 µL1.023 mL

Molarity calculator

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Spectral properties

Extinction coefficient (cm -1 M -1)80000
Excitation (nm)500
Emission (nm)522

Product Family

NameExcitation (nm)Emission (nm)Extinction coefficient (cm -1 M -1)



View all 4 citations: Citation Explorer
Diabetogenic agent alloxan is a proteasome inhibitor
Authors: Zhou, Wenjuan and Wei, Lingling and Xiao, Ting and Lai, Chunyou and Peng, Min and Xu, Lingli and Luo, Xiangwei and Deng, Shaoping and Zhang, Fengxue
Journal: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (2017): 400--406
Delineation of molecular pathways involved in cardiomyopathies caused by troponin T mutations
Authors: Gilda, Jennifer E and Lai, Xianyin and Witzmann, Frank A and Gomes, Aldrin V
Journal: Molecular &amp; Cellular Proteomics (2016): 1962--1981
Diclofenac induces proteasome and mitochondrial dysfunction in murine cardiomyocytes and hearts
Authors: Ghosh, Rajeshwary and Goswami, Sumanta K and Feitoza, Luis Felipe BB and Hammock, Bruce and Gomes, Aldrin V
Journal: International Journal of Cardiology (2016): 923--935
Advanced-glycation-end-product-induced formation of immunoproteasomes: involvement of RAGE and Jak2/STAT1
Authors: Grimm, Stefanie and Ott, Christiane and H&ouml;rlacher, Melanie and Weber, Daniela and H&ouml;hn, Annika and Grune, Tilman
Journal: Biochemical Journal (2012): 127--139


View all 36 references: Citation Explorer
Alveolar extracellular 20S proteasome in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome
Authors: Sixt SU, Adamzik M, Spyrka D, Saul B, Hakenbeck J, Wohlschlaeger J, Costabel U, Kloss A, Giesebrecht J, Dahlmann B, Peters J.
Journal: Am J Respir Crit Care Med (2009): 1098
Quinone reductase acts as a redox switch of the 20S yeast proteasome
Authors: Sollner S, Schober M, Wagner A, Prem A, Lorkova L, Palfey BA, Groll M, Macheroux P.
Journal: EMBO Rep (2009): 65
Comparative expression analysis and characterization of 20S proteasomes in human intestinal tissues: The proteasome pattern as diagnostic tool for IBD patients
Authors: Visekruna A, Joeris T, Schmidt N, Lawrenz M, Ritz JP, Buhr HJ, Steinhoff U.
Journal: Inflamm Bowel Dis (2009): 526
Enzymatic properties of the 20S proteasome in wheat endosperm and its biochemical characteristics after seed imbibition
Authors: Shi C, Rui Q, Xu LL.
Journal: Plant Biol (Stuttg) (2009): 849
Toward a full characterization of the human 20S proteasome subunits and their isoforms by a combination of proteomic approaches
Authors: Uttenweiler-Joseph S, Claverol S, Sylvius L, Bousquet-Dubouch MP, Burlet-Schiltz O, Monsarrat B.
Journal: Methods Mol Biol (2008): 111
Circulating 20S proteasome levels in patients with mixed connective tissue disease and systemic lupus erythematosus
Authors: Majetschak M, Perez M, Sorell LT, Lam J, Maldonado ME, Hoffman RW.
Journal: Clin Vaccine Immunol (2008): 1489
BCL-2 family regulation by the 20S proteasome inhibitor bortezomib
Authors: Fennell DA, Chacko A, Mutti L.
Journal: Oncogene (2008): 1189
The 20S proteasome of Schistosoma mansoni: a proteomic analysis
Authors: Castro-Borges W, Cartwright J, Ashton PD, Braschi S, Guerra Sa R, Rodrigues V, Wilson RA, Curwen RS.
Journal: Proteomics (2007): 1065
Design and synthesis of a novel class of furan-based molecules as potential 20S proteasome inhibitors
Authors: Fu Y, Xu B, Zou X, Ma C, Yang X, Mou K, Fu G, Lu Y, Xu P.
Journal: Bioorg Med Chem Lett (2007): 1102
beta-Subunit appendages promote 20S proteasome assembly by overcoming an Ump1-dependent checkpoint
Authors: Li X, Kusmierczyk AR, Wong P, Emili A, Hochstrasser M.
Journal: Embo J (2007): 2339