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Fluo-2, AM

Chemical structure for Fluo-2, AM
Chemical structure for Fluo-2, AM
Ordering information
Price ()
Catalog Number20494
Unit Size
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Additional ordering information
Telephone1-408-733-1055
Fax1-408-733-1304
Emailsales@aatbio.com
InternationalSee distributors
ShippingStandard overnight for United States, inquire for international
Physical properties
Dissociation constant (Kd, nM)232
Molecular weight1060.96
SolventDMSO
Storage, safety and handling
H-phraseH303, H313, H333
Hazard symbolXN
Intended useResearch Use Only (RUO)
R-phraseR20, R21, R22
StorageFreeze (< -15 °C); Minimize light exposure
UNSPSC12352200
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Show More (76)

OverviewpdfSDSpdfProtocol


CAS
108964-32-5
Molecular weight
1060.96
Dissociation constant (Kd, nM)
232
Calcium measurement is critical for numerous biological investigations. Fluorescent probes that show spectral responses upon binding calcium have enabled researchers to investigate changes in intracellular free calcium concentrations by using fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence microplate readers. Fluo-2 is the parent compound of Fluo-3 and Fluo-4. These fluorescent calcium indicators have calcium-dependent fluorescence.

Platform


Flow cytometer

Excitation488 nm laser
Emission530/30 nm filter
Instrument specification(s)FITC channel

Fluorescence microscope

ExcitationFITC
EmissionFITC
Recommended plateBlack wall/clear bottom

Fluorescence microplate reader

Excitation490
Emission525
Cutoff515
Recommended plateBlack wall/clear bottom
Instrument specification(s)Bottom read mode/Programmable liquid handling

Example protocol


PREPARATION OF STOCK SOLUTIONS

Unless otherwise noted, all unused stock solutions should be divided into single-use aliquots and stored at -20 °C after preparation. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.

Fluo-2 AM Stock Solution
Prepare a 2 to 5 mM stock solution of Fluo-2 AM in high-quality, anhydrous DMSO.

PREPARATION OF WORKING SOLUTION

Fluo-2 AM Working Solution
On the day of the experiment, either dissolve Fluo-2 AM in DMSO or thaw an aliquot of the indicator stock solution to room temperature. Prepare a dye working solution of 2 to 20 µM in a buffer of your choice (e.g., Hanks and Hepes buffer) with 0.04% Pluronic® F-127. For most cell lines, Fluo-2 AM at a final concentration of 4-5 μM is recommended. The exact concentration of indicators required for cell loading must be determined empirically.
Note     The nonionic detergent Pluronic® F-127 is sometimes used to increase the aqueous solubility of Fluo-2 AM. A variety of Pluronic® F-127 solutions can be purchased from AAT Bioquest.
Note     If your cells contain organic anion-transporters, probenecid (1-2 mM) may be added to the dye working solution (final in well concentration will be 0.5-1 mM) to reduce leakage of the de-esterified indicators. A variety of ReadiUse™ probenecid products, including water-soluble, sodium salt, and stabilized solution, can be purchased from AAT Bioquest.

SAMPLE EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL

Following is our recommended protocol for loading AM esters into live cells. This protocol only provides a guideline and should be modified according to your specific needs.
  1. Prepare cells in growth medium overnight.
  2. On the next day, add 1X Fluo-2 AM working solution into your cell plate.
    Note     If your compound(s) interfere with the serum, replace the growth medium with fresh HHBS buffer before dye-loading.
  3. Incubate the dye-loaded plate in a cell incubator at 37 °C for 30 to 60 minutes.
    Note     Incubating the dye for longer than 2 hours can improve signal intensities in certain cell lines.
  4. Replace the dye working solution with HHBS or buffer of your choice (containing an anion transporter inhibitor, such as 1 mM probenecid, if applicable) to remove any excess probes.
  5. Add the stimulant as desired and simultaneously measure fluorescence using either a fluorescence microscope equipped with a FITC filter set or a fluorescence plate reader containing a programmable liquid handling system such as an FDSS, FLIPR, or FlexStation, at 490/525 nm cutoff 515 nm. 

Calculators


Common stock solution preparation

Table 1. Volume of DMSO needed to reconstitute specific mass of Fluo-2, AM to given concentration. Note that volume is only for preparing stock solution. Refer to sample experimental protocol for appropriate experimental/physiological buffers.

0.1 mg0.5 mg1 mg5 mg10 mg
1 mM94.254 µL471.271 µL942.543 µL4.713 mL9.425 mL
5 mM18.851 µL94.254 µL188.509 µL942.543 µL1.885 mL
10 mM9.425 µL47.127 µL94.254 µL471.271 µL942.543 µL

Molarity calculator

Enter any two values (mass, volume, concentration) to calculate the third.

Mass (Calculate)Molecular weightVolume (Calculate)Concentration (Calculate)Moles
/=x=

Citations


View all 12 citations: Citation Explorer
GC-globulin/vitamin D-binding protein is required for pancreatic $\alpha$ cell adaptation to metabolic stress
Authors: Viloria, K and Nasteska, D and Ast, J and Hasib, A and Cuozzo, F and Heising, S and Briant, L and Hewison, M and Hodson, D
Journal: Diabetes (2022)
Mitochonic acid 5 regulates mitofusin 2 to protect microglia
Authors: Tan, Jian and Chen, Shuang-Xi and Lei, Qing-Yun and Yi, Shan-Qing and Wu, Na and Wang, Yi-Lin and Xiao, Zi-Jian and Wu, Heng and others,
Journal: Neural Regeneration Research (2021): 1813
Calreticulin regulates TGF-β1-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition through modulating Smad signaling and calcium signaling
Authors: Wu, Yanjiao and Xu, Xiaoli and Ma, Lunkun and Yi, Qian and Sun, Weichao and Tang, Liling
Journal: The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology (2017)
Monosialoganglioside 1 may alleviate neurotoxicity induced by propofol combined with remifentanil in neural stem cells
Authors: Lu, Jiang and Yao, Xue-qin and Luo, Xin and Wang, Yu and Chung, Sookja Kim and Tang, He-xin and Cheung, Chi Wai and Wang, Xian-yu and Meng, Chen and Li, Qing and others, undefined
Journal: Neural Regeneration Research (2017): 945
Obtaining spontaneously beating cardiomyocyte-like cells from adipose-derived stromal vascular fractions cultured on enzyme-crosslinked gelatin hydrogels
Authors: Yang, Gang and Xiao, Zhenghua and Ren, Xiaomei and Long, Haiyan and Ma, Kunlong and Qian, Hong and Guo, Yingqiang
Journal: Scientific Reports (2017): 41781
Dexmedetomidine reduces hypoxia/reoxygenation injury by regulating mitochondrial fission in rat hippocampal neurons
Authors: Liu, Jia and Du, Qing and Zhu, He and Li, Yu and Liu, Maodong and Yu, Shoushui and Wang, Shilei
Journal: Int J Clin Exp Med (2017): 6861--6868
Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-induced apoptosis in rat INS-1 cells is dependent on activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and suppression of antioxidant protection
Authors: Sun, Xia and Lin, Yi and Huang, Qiansheng and Shi, Junpeng and Qiu, Ling and Kang, Mei and Chen, Yajie and Fang, Chao and Ye, Ting and Dong, Sijun
Journal: Journal of cellular and molecular medicine (2015): 581--594
The effect of mitochondrial calcium uniporter on mitochondrial fission in hippocampus cells ischemia/reperfusion injury
Authors: Zhao, Lantao and Li, Shuhong and Wang, Shilei and Yu, Ning and Liu, Jia
Journal: Biochemical and biophysical research communications (2015): 537--542
Role of mitochondrial calcium uniporter in regulating mitochondrial fission in the cerebral cortexes of living rats
Authors: Liang, Nan and Wang, Peng and Wang, Shilei and Li, Shuhong and Li, Yu and Wang, Jinying and Wang, Min
Journal: Journal of Neural Transmission (2014): 593--600
Propofol and remifentanil at moderate and high concentrations affect proliferation and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells
Authors: Li, Qing and Lu, Jiang and Wang, Xianyu and others, undefined
Journal: Neural regeneration research (2014): 2002

References


View all 53 references: Citation Explorer
A flow cytometric comparison of Indo-1 to fluo-3 and Fura Red excited with low power lasers for detecting Ca(2+) flux
Authors: Bailey S, Macardle PJ.
Journal: J Immunol Methods (2006): 220
Functional fluo-3/AM assay on P-glycoprotein transport activity in L1210/VCR cells by confocal microscopy
Authors: Orlicky J, Sulova Z, Dovinova I, Fiala R, Zahradnikova A, Jr., Breier A.
Journal: Gen Physiol Biophys (2004): 357
Comparison of human recombinant adenosine A2B receptor function assessed by Fluo-3-AM fluorometry and microphysiometry
Authors: Patel H, Porter RH, Palmer AM, Croucher MJ.
Journal: Br J Pharmacol (2003): 671
Measurement of the dissociation constant of Fluo-3 for Ca2+ in isolated rabbit cardiomyocytes using Ca2+ wave characteristics
Authors: Loughrey CM, MacEachern KE, Cooper J, Smith GL.
Journal: Cell Calcium (2003): 1
A sensitive method for the detection of foot and mouth disease virus by in situ hybridisation using biotin-labelled oligodeoxynucleotides and tyramide signal amplification
Authors: Zhang Z, Kitching P.
Journal: J Virol Methods (2000): 187
Kinetics of onset of mouse sperm acrosome reaction induced by solubilized zona pellucida: fluorimetric determination of loss of pH gradient between acrosomal lumen and medium monitored by dapoxyl (2-aminoethyl) sulfonamide and of intracellular Ca(2+) chang
Authors: Rockwell PL, Storey BT.
Journal: Mol Reprod Dev (2000): 335
MRP2, a human conjugate export pump, is present and transports fluo 3 into apical vacuoles of Hep G2 cells
Authors: Cantz T, Nies AT, Brom M, Hofmann AF, Keppler D.
Journal: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol (2000): G522
Use of co-loaded Fluo-3 and Fura Red fluorescent indicators for studying the cytosolic Ca(2+)concentrations distribution in living plant tissue
Authors: Walczysko P, Wagner E, Albrechtova JT.
Journal: Cell Calcium (2000): 23
[Ca2+]i following extrasystoles in guinea-pig trabeculae microinjected with fluo-3 - a comparison with frog skeletal muscle fibres
Authors: Wohlfart B., undefined
Journal: Acta Physiol Scand (2000): 1
Determination of the intracellular dissociation constant, K(D), of the fluo-3. Ca(2+) complex in mouse sperm for use in estimating intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations
Authors: Rockwell PL, Storey BT.
Journal: Mol Reprod Dev (1999): 418