AAT Bioquest

ReadiUse™ probenecid *25 mM stabilized aqueous solution*

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Physical properties
Molecular weight307.34
Storage, safety and handling
H-phraseH303, H313, H333
Hazard symbolXN
Intended useResearch Use Only (RUO)
R-phraseR20, R21, R22
StorageFreeze (< -15 °C); Minimize light exposure
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Molecular weight
Probenecid is an inhibitor of organic-anion transporters located in cell membranes. These transporters often extrude fluorescent indicators from cells, and therefore contribute to poor dye retention. This phenomenon usually causes high background in the assays that require the good retention of the dye indicators inside cells. The use of probenecid to inhibit the transporter activity, and thus to reduce leakage of the intracellular dye indicators is a common method for reducing fluorescence background of calcium assays. The commonly used free acid form of probenecid requires the use of 1 M NaOH to dissolve it due to its poor water solubility in neutral water. AAT Bioquest offer the convenient Readiuse™ water-soluble and heat-stable probenecid in the format of a powder, solution or tablet. They are convenient to use and are as effective as the free acid form at the same concentration. Each vial is diluted with 90 mL buffer to make 2.5 mM final concentration of probenecid for your assays.


Common stock solution preparation

Table 1. Volume of Water needed to reconstitute specific mass of ReadiUse™ probenecid *25 mM stabilized aqueous solution* to given concentration. Note that volume is only for preparing stock solution. Refer to sample experimental protocol for appropriate experimental/physiological buffers.

0.1 mg0.5 mg1 mg5 mg10 mg
1 mM325.373 µL1.627 mL3.254 mL16.269 mL32.537 mL
5 mM65.075 µL325.373 µL650.745 µL3.254 mL6.507 mL
10 mM32.537 µL162.686 µL325.373 µL1.627 mL3.254 mL

Molarity calculator

Enter any two values (mass, volume, concentration) to calculate the third.

Mass (Calculate)Molecular weightVolume (Calculate)Concentration (Calculate)Moles



View all 10 citations: Citation Explorer
Mitochondrial-dependent oxidative phosphorylation is key for postnatal metabolic adaptation of alveolar macrophages in the lung
Authors: Zhang, Jun and Peng, Yu and Song, Haosen and Liu, Siqi and Li, Chuanwei and Zhang, Yi and Shi, Xiaowei and Guo, Huifang and Xu, Yingping
Journal: International Immunopharmacology (2024): 112012
Magnetic-field-synchronized wireless modulation of neural activity by magnetoelectric nanoparticles
Authors: Zhang, E and Abdel-Mottaleb, M and Liang, P and Navarrete, B and Yildirim, Y Akin and Campos, M Alberteris and Smith, IT and Wang, P and Yildirim, B and Yang, L and others,
Journal: Brain Stimulation (2022): 1451--1462
Pharmacogenomic screening of drug candidates using patient-specific hiPSC-derived cardiomyocyte high-throughput calcium imaging
Authors: Blancard, Malorie and Fetterman, K Ashley and Burridge, Paul W
Journal: (2022): 241--253
Identification of the material basis of the medicinal properties in Curcuma Longa L. to enhance targeted clinical application
Authors: Peng, Sha and Li, Jing and Huo, Mengqi and Cao, Yanfeng and Chen, Zhao and Zhang, Yanling and Qiao, Yanjiang
Journal: Journal of Traditional Chinese Medical Sciences (2022): 374--382
Hypocalcemia in sepsis: analysis of the subcellular distribution of Ca2+ in septic rats and LPS/TNF-$\alpha$-treated HUVECs
Authors: He, Wencheng and Huang, Lei and Luo, Hua and Zang, Yang and An, Youzhong and Zhang, Weixing
Journal: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries (2020): 908--917
Absence of Gravin Mediated Signaling Inhibits Development of High Fat Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia and Atherosclerosis
Authors: Fan, Qiying and Yin, Xing and Rababa'h, Abeer and Diaz Diaz, Andrea and Wijaya, Cori S and Singh, Sonal and Suryavanshi, Santosh V and Vo, Henry Hiep and Saeed, Moawiz and Zhang, Yang and others, undefined
Journal: American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology (2019)
Teleocidin A2 inhibits human proteinase-activated receptor 2 signaling in tumor cells
Authors: Stahn, Sonja and Thelen, Lisa and Albrecht, Ina-Maria and Bitzer, Jens and Henkel, Thomas and Teusch, Nicole Elisabeth
Journal: Pharmacology Research &amp; Perspectives (2016)
Glutathione adducts on sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase Cys-674 regulate endothelial cell calcium stores and angiogenic function as well as promote ischemic blood flow recovery
Authors: Thompson, Melissa D and Mei, Yu and Weisbrod, Robert M and Silver, Marcy and Shukla, Praphulla C and Bolotina, Victoria M and Cohen, Richard A and Tong, Xiaoyong
Journal: Journal of Biological Chemistry (2014): 19907--19916


View all 35 references: Citation Explorer
DNA damage caused by benzo(a)pyrene in MCF-7 cells is increased by verapamil, probenecid and PSC833
Authors: Myllynen P, Kurttila T, Vaskivuo L, Vahakangas K.
Journal: Toxicol Lett (2007): 3
Is the monkey an appropriate animal model to examine drug-drug interactions involving renal clearance? Effect of probenecid on the renal elimination of H2 receptor antagonists
Authors: Tahara H, Kusuhara H, Chida M, Fuse E, Sugiyama Y.
Journal: J Pharmacol Exp Ther (2006): 1187
Inhibition of oat3-mediated renal uptake as a mechanism for drug-drug interaction between fexofenadine and probenecid
Authors: Tahara H, Kusuhara H, Maeda K, Koepsell H, Fuse E, Sugiyama Y.
Journal: Drug Metab Dispos (2006): 743
MRP2 (ABCC2) transports taxanes and confers paclitaxel resistance and both processes are stimulated by probenecid
Authors: Huisman MT, Chhatta AA, van Tellingen O, Beijnen JH, Schinkel AH.
Journal: Int J Cancer (2005): 824
Mediation of annexin 1 secretion by a probenecid-sensitive ABC-transporter in rat inflamed mucosa
Authors: Wein S, Fauroux M, Laffitte J, de Nadai P, Guaini C, Pons F, Comera C.
Journal: Biochem Pharmacol (2004): 1195
Open randomized study of pyrimethamine-sulphadoxine vs. pyrimethamine-sulphadoxine plus probenecid for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children
Authors: Sowunmi A, Fehintola FA, Adedeji AA, Gbotosho GO, Falade CO, Tambo E, Fateye BA, Happi TC, Oduola AM.
Journal: Trop Med Int Health (2004): 606
Inhibition of multidrug transporters by verapamil or probenecid does not alter blood-brain barrier penetration of levetiracetam in rats
Authors: Potschka H, Baltes S, Loscher W.
Journal: Epilepsy Res (2004): 85
Probenecid interacts with the pharmacokinetics of morphine-6-glucuronide in humans
Authors: Skarke C, Langer M, Jarrar M, Schmidt H, Geisslinger G, Lotsch J.
Journal: Anesthesiology (2004): 1394
Impact of Mrp2 on the biliary excretion and intestinal absorption of furosemide, probenecid, and methotrexate using Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats
Authors: Chen C, Scott D, Hanson E, Franco J, Berryman E, Volberg M, Liu X.
Journal: Pharm Res (2003): 31
The influence of inhibition of probenecid sensitive transporters on the central nervous system (CNS) uptake and the antinociceptive activity of morphine-6-glucuronide in rats
Authors: Lotsch J, Schmidt R, Vetter G, Schmidt H, Skarke C, Niederberger E, Geisslinger G, Tegeder I.
Journal: Neurosci Lett (2002): 145