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Thioflavin T *CAS 2390-54-7*

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Physical properties
Molecular weight318.87
Spectral properties
Absorbance (nm)199
Excitation (nm)349
Emission (nm)454
Storage, safety and handling
H-phraseH303, H313, H333
Hazard symbolXN
Intended useResearch Use Only (RUO)
R-phraseR20, R21, R22
StorageFreeze (< -15 °C); Minimize light exposure


Molecular weight
Absorbance (nm)
Excitation (nm)
Emission (nm)
Thioflavin T (ThT), also called Basic Yellow 1 or CI 49005, is a benzothiazole salt. The dye is used to visualize plaques composed of beta-amyloid found in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. When it binds to beta sheets, such as those in amyloid oligomers, the dye undergoes a characteristic 120 nm red shift of its excitation spectrum that may be selectively excited at 450 nm, resulting in a fluorescence signal at 482 nm. ThT binds rapidly and specifically to the anti-parallel beta-sheet fibrils formed from synthetic beta-amyloid (1-40), but does not bind to monomer or oligomeric intermediates. The binding of ThT does not interfere with the aggregation of beta-amyloid peptide into amyloid fibrils.


Common stock solution preparation

Table 1. Volume of DMSO needed to reconstitute specific mass of Thioflavin T *CAS 2390-54-7* to given concentration. Note that volume is only for preparing stock solution. Refer to sample experimental protocol for appropriate experimental/physiological buffers.

0.1 mg0.5 mg1 mg5 mg10 mg
1 mM313.607 µL1.568 mL3.136 mL15.68 mL31.361 mL
5 mM62.721 µL313.607 µL627.215 µL3.136 mL6.272 mL
10 mM31.361 µL156.804 µL313.607 µL1.568 mL3.136 mL

Molarity calculator

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Spectral properties

Absorbance (nm)199
Excitation (nm)349
Emission (nm)454

Product Family

NameExcitation (nm)Emission (nm)
Thioflavin S *CAS 1326-12-1*391428



View all 13 citations: Citation Explorer
Instantaneous Clearing of Biofilm (iCBiofilm): an optical approach to revisit bacterial and fungal biofilm imaging
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Switching G-quadruplex to parallel duplex by molecular rotor clustering
Authors: Xu, Qiuda and Yang, Mujing and Chang, Yun and Peng, Shuzhen and Wang, Dandan and Zhou, Xiaoshun and Shao, Yong
Journal: Nucleic Acids Research (2022): 10249--10263
Astragaloside IV ameliorates cognitive impairment and neuroinflammation in an oligomeric A$\beta$ induced Alzheimer's disease mouse model via inhibition of microglial activation and NADPH oxidase expression
Authors: Chen, Fei and Yang, Dan and Cheng, Xiao-Yu and Yang, Hui and Yang, Xin-He and Liu, He-Tao and Wang, Rui and Zheng, Ping and Yao, Yao and Li, Juan
Journal: Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (2021): b21--00381
Human serum albumin aggregation/fibrillation and its abilities to drugs binding
Authors: Maci{\k{a}}{\.z}ek-Jurczyk, Ma{\l}gorzata and Janas, Kamil and Po{\.z}ycka, Jadwiga and Szkudlarek, Agnieszka and Rog{\'o}{\.z}, Wojciech and Owczarzy, Aleksandra and Kulig, Karolina
Journal: Molecules (2020): 618
Redundant and distinct roles of secreted protein Eap and cell wall-anchored protein SasG in biofilm formation and pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus
Authors: Yonemoto, Keigo and Chiba, Akio and Sugimoto, Shinya and Sato, Chikara and Saito, Mitsuru and Kinjo, Yuki and Marumo, Keishi and Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu
Journal: Infection and immunity (2019): e00894--18
Human Telomeric Hybrid-2-over-Hybrid-1 G-quadruplex Targeting and a Selective Hypersaline-Tolerant Sensor Using Abasic Site-Engineered Monomorphism
Authors: Wu, Tao and Ye, Meiyun and Mao, Tianyi and Lin, Fan and Hu, Yuehua and Gan, Ning and Shao, Yong
Journal: Analytica Chimica Acta (2017)
Fluorescent dyes in the context of DNA-binding: The case of Thioflavin T
Authors: Biancardi, Aless and ro , undefined and Biver, Tarita and Mennucci, Benedetta
Journal: International Journal of Quantum Chemistry (2017)
Thioflavin T as a fluorescence probe for monitoring RNA metabolism at molecular and cellular levels
Authors: Sugimoto, Shinya and Arita-Morioka, Ken-ichi and Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu and Yamanaka, Kunitoshi and Ogura, Teru
Journal: Nucleic acids research (2015): gkv338
Determinants of amyloid fibril degradation by the PDZ protease HTRA1
Authors: Poepsel, Simon and Sprengel, Andreas and Sacca, Barbara and Kaschani, Farnusch and Kaiser, Markus and Gatsogiannis, Christos and Raunser, Stefan and Clausen, Tim and Ehrmann, Michael
Journal: Nature chemical biology (2015): 862--869
Mechanistic aspects of thioflavin-T self-aggregation and DNA binding: evidence for dimer attack on DNA grooves
Authors: Biancardi, A and Biver, T and Burgalassi, A and Mattonai, M and Secco, F and Venturini, M
Journal: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics (2014): 20061--20072


View all 28 references: Citation Explorer
Methods for enhancing the accuracy and reproducibility of Congo red and thioflavin T assays
Authors: Eisert R, Felau L, Brown LR.
Journal: Anal Biochem (2006): 144
Lipophilic analogs of thioflavin S as novel amyloid-imaging agents
Authors: Wu C, Cai L, Wei J, Pike VW, Wang Y.
Journal: Curr Alzheimer Res (2006): 259
Oligo(ethylene glycol) derivatives of Thioflavin T as inhibitors of protein-amyloid interactions
Authors: Inbar P, Li CQ, Takayama SA, Bautista MR, Yang J.
Journal: Chembiochem (2006): 1563
Mechanism of thioflavin T accumulation inside cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein or multidrug resistance-associated protein: role of lipophilicity and positive charge
Authors: Darghal N, Garnier-Suillerot A, Salerno M.
Journal: Biochem Biophys Res Commun (2006): 623
Characteristics of the binding of thioflavin S to tau paired helical filaments
Authors: Santa-Maria I, Perez M, Hern and ez F, Avila J, Moreno FJ.
Journal: J Alzheimers Dis (2006): 279
Development of novel amyloid imaging agents based upon thioflavin S
Authors: Wei J, Wu C, Lankin D, Gulrati A, Valyi-Nagy T, Cochran E, Pike VW, Kozikowski A, Wang Y.
Journal: Curr Alzheimer Res (2005): 109
Efficient radiosynthesis of carbon-11 labelled uncharged Thioflavin T derivatives using [11C]methyl triflate for beta-amyloid imaging in Alzheimer's Disease with PET
Authors: Solbach C, Uebele M, Reischl G, Machulla HJ.
Journal: Appl Radiat Isot (2005): 591
Chiral bias of amyloid fibrils revealed by the twisted conformation of Thioflavin T: an induced circular dichroism/DFT study
Authors: Dzwolak W, Pecul M.
Journal: FEBS Lett (2005): 6601
The binding of thioflavin-T to amyloid fibrils: localisation and implications
Authors: Krebs MR, Bromley EH, Donald AM.
Journal: J Struct Biol (2005): 30
Mechanism of thioflavin T binding to amyloid fibrils
Authors: Khurana R, Coleman C, Ionescu-Zanetti C, Carter SA, Krishna V, Grover RK, Roy R, Singh S.
Journal: J Struct Biol (2005): 229