How do enzymes accelerate biochemical reactions?
Posted July 22, 2020
Enzymes accelerate biochemical reactions by lowering the activation energy, which can be achieved by the following ways:
- By stabilizing the transition state: Enzymes can lower the energy of the transition state by creating an environment with a charge distribution complementary to that of the transition state.
- By providing an alternative reaction pathway: Enzymes can temporarily react with the substrate to form a covalent intermediate, providing a new transition state with lower energy.
- By destabilizing the substrate ground state: Enzymes can distort bound substrates into their transition state form, reducing the energy required to reach the transition state. Occasionally, enzymes can reduce the entropy change by orienting the substrates into a productive arrangement.