AAT Bioquest

What is Titration?

Posted September 28, 2022


Titration is a laboratory process used in quantitative analytical chemistry to determine an unknown concentration of an identified analyte in a sample. It works on the principle that if the concentration of one solution is known, the concentration of the other solution can be calculated. The process requires 3 basic components: 

  • A titrant, which is a solution of known concentration or molarity
  • A titrand or sample solution of unknown concentration that needs to be measured
  • A calibrated burette, which dispenses the titrant into the titrand one drop at a time

To carry out titration, the titrant is added drop by drop into the sample solution or titrand using a calibrated burette, until the reaction is complete. An indicator is used to signal the end of the reaction or the endpoint of titration. At the endpoint of titration, the amount of titrant added to the solution is recorded. Knowing the volume of the titrant used allows researchers to calculate the concentration of the analyte in the titrand. Titration is widely used to check the purity of pharmaceuticals and other synthesized chemical compounds. It is also known as volumetric analysis as volume measures play a key role in the process. 

Additional resources

Solid titration of octacalcium phosphate