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DiI iodide [1,1-Dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3- tetramethylindocarbocyanine iodide]

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Physical properties
Molecular weight961.32
Spectral properties
Extinction coefficient (cm -1 M -1)148000
Excitation (nm)550
Emission (nm)564
Storage, safety and handling
H-phraseH303, H313, H333
Hazard symbolXN
Intended useResearch Use Only (RUO)
R-phraseR20, R21, R22
StorageFreeze (< -15 °C); Minimize light exposure


Molecular weight
Extinction coefficient (cm -1 M -1)
Excitation (nm)
Emission (nm)
DiI, DiO, DiD and DiR dyes are a family of lipophilic fluorescent stains for labeling membranes and other hydrophobic structures. The fluorescence of these environment-sensitive dyes is greatly enhanced when incorporated into membranes or bound to lipophilic biomolecules such as proteins although they are weakly fluorescent in water. They have high extinction coefficients, polarity-dependent fluorescence and short excited-state lifetimes. Once applied to cells, these dyes diffuse laterally within the cellular plasma membranes, resulting in even staining of the entire cell at their optimal concentrations. The distinct fluorescence colors of DiI (orange fluorescence), DiO (green fluorescence), DiD (red fluorescence) and DiR (deep red fluorescent) provide a convenient tool for multicolor imaging and flow cytometric analysis of live cells. DiO and DiI can be used with standard FITC and TRITC filters respectively. Among them DiI and its analogs are most frequently used since they usually exhibit very low cell toxicity. In addition, DiI is widely used for determining lipoproteins such as LDL and HDL.


Common stock solution preparation

Table 1. Volume of DMSO needed to reconstitute specific mass of DiI iodide [1,1-Dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3- tetramethylindocarbocyanine iodide] to given concentration. Note that volume is only for preparing stock solution. Refer to sample experimental protocol for appropriate experimental/physiological buffers.

0.1 mg0.5 mg1 mg5 mg10 mg
1 mM104.024 µL520.118 µL1.04 mL5.201 mL10.402 mL
5 mM20.805 µL104.024 µL208.047 µL1.04 mL2.08 mL
10 mM10.402 µL52.012 µL104.024 µL520.118 µL1.04 mL

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Spectral properties

Extinction coefficient (cm -1 M -1)148000
Excitation (nm)550
Emission (nm)564



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A novel strategy to identify candidate diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for gastric cancer
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Insight into the in vivo translocation of oral liposomes by fluorescence resonance energy transfer effect
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Radial extracorporeal shock wave promotes the enhanced permeability and retention effect to reinforce cancer nanothermotherapeutics
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Loss of Integrity of Doxorubicin Liposomes during Transcellular Transportation Evidenced by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Effect
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DOTA Functionalized Cross-Linked Small-Molecule Micelles for Theranostics Combining Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Chemotherapy
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Influence of Particle Geometry on Gastrointestinal Transit and Absorption following Oral Administration
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View all 92 references: Citation Explorer
Use of lipophilic near-infrared dye in whole-body optical imaging of hematopoietic cell homing
Authors: Kalchenko V, Shivtiel S, Malina V, Lapid K, Haramati S, Lapidot T, Brill A, Harmelin A.
Journal: J Biomed Opt (2006): 50507
Nox2, Ca2+, and protein kinase C play a role in angiotensin II-induced free radical production in nucleus tractus solitarius
Authors: Wang G, Anrather J, Glass MJ, Tarsitano MJ, Zhou P, Frys KA, Pickel VM, Iadecola C.
Journal: Hypertension (2006): 482
Functional neuroanatomy of the rhinophore of Aplysia punctata
Authors: Wertz A, Rossler W, Obermayer M, Bickmeyer U.
Journal: Front Zool (2006): 6
In vivo imaging and counting of rat retinal ganglion cells using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope
Authors: Higashide T, Kawaguchi I, Ohkubo S, Takeda H, Sugiyama K.
Journal: Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci (2006): 2943
Confocal laser scanning microscopy using dialkylcarbocyanine dyes for cell tracing in hard and soft biomaterials
Authors: Heinrich L, Freyria AM, Melin M, Tourneur Y, Maksoud R, Bernengo JC, Hartmann DJ.
Journal: J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. (2006)
Regional cardiac ganglia projections in the guinea pig heart studied by postmortem DiI tracing
Authors: Harrison TA, Perry KM, Hoover DB.
Journal: Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol (2005): 758
Retinal ganglion cells resistant to advanced glaucoma: a postmortem study of human retinas with the carbocyanine dye DiI
Authors: Pavlidis M, Stupp T, Naskar R, Cengiz C, Thanos S.
Journal: Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci (2003): 5196
Anatomic relationships of the human nucleus of the solitary tract in the medulla oblongata: a DiI labeling study
Authors: Zec N, Kinney HC.
Journal: Auton Neurosci (2003): 131
Projection pattern of nerve fibers from the septal organ: DiI-tracing studies with transgenic OMP mice
Authors: Levai O, Strotmann J.
Journal: Histochem Cell Biol (2003): 483
A novel morphological technique to investigate a single climbing fibre synaptogenesis with a Purkinje cell in the developing mouse cerebellum: DiI injection into the inferior cerebellar peduncle
Authors: Kiyohara Y, Endo K, Ide C, Mizoguchi A.
Journal: J Electron Microsc (Tokyo) (2003): 327