AAT Bioquest

What are the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication?

Posted May 27, 2022

Basis of DifferentiationProkaryotic DNA ReplicationEukaryotic DNA Replication
DefinitionIs a process by which a prokaryotic organism duplicates its DNA into another copy, which is passed on to daughter cellsIs a process by which an eukaryotic organism duplicates its DNA into another copy before cell division
Type of DNA involved in the processCircular, double-stranded DNA Linear, double-stranded DNA with ends
Location where replication takes placeTakes place in the cytoplasmTakes place in the nucleus
OccurrenceIs a continuous processOccurs during the S phase of the cell cycle
Amount of DNASmall amount of prokaryotic DNARelatively larger amount of eukaryotic DNA – as much as 50 times more than the amount of prokaryotic DNA
Origin of replicationComprises of a single origin of replication Comprises of multiple – more than 1000 – origins of replication 
Rate of replication Is a rapid process, with about 2000 nucleotides added per secondIs a relatively slow process with around 100 nucleotides added per second
Result of replication Final product is 2 circular chromosomesFinal product is 2 sister chromatids
Packaging DNA forms loop-like structures by wrapping around histone-like protein moleculesDNA forms nucleosomes - shows higher order packaging
DNA Polymerases involved in the processDNA polymerase I and IIIDNA polymerase α, δ, and ε
DNA Gyrase requirementIs requiredIs not required
Size of okazaki fragments Large, around 1000-2000 nucleotides in lengthSmall, around 100-200 nucleotides in length
Additional resources

Principles and Concepts of DNA Replication in Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya

Helixyte™ Green dsDNA Quantifying Reagent *200X DMSO Solution*

DNA and RNA Quantitation