Actively helping customers, employees and the global community during the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 outbreak.  Learn more >>

Cell Meter™ Autophagy Assay Kit *Blue Fluorescence*

Autophagy Blue™ labeled vesicles are induced by starvation in HeLa cells using Cell Meter™ Autophagy Assay Kit. HeLa cells were incubated in a regular DMEM medium as control (A) or in a serum-depleted medium as autophagy treatment (B) for 16 hours. Both control cells and starved cells were incubated with Autophagy Blue™ working solution for 30 minutes in a 37 °C, 5%  CO<sub>2 </sub>incubator, and then washed four times with wash buffer. Cells were imaged immediately under a fluorescence microscope with a DAPI channel. Autophagy is indicated by bright blue dot staining of autophagic vacuoles (B).
Autophagy Blue™ labeled vesicles are induced by starvation in HeLa cells using Cell Meter™ Autophagy Assay Kit. HeLa cells were incubated in a regular DMEM medium as control (A) or in a serum-depleted medium as autophagy treatment (B) for 16 hours. Both control cells and starved cells were incubated with Autophagy Blue™ working solution for 30 minutes in a 37 °C, 5%  CO<sub>2 </sub>incubator, and then washed four times with wash buffer. Cells were imaged immediately under a fluorescence microscope with a DAPI channel. Autophagy is indicated by bright blue dot staining of autophagic vacuoles (B).
Ordering information
Price ()
Catalog Number23000
Unit Size
Find Distributor
Additional ordering information
Telephone1-408-733-1055
Fax1-408-733-1304
Emailsales@aatbio.com
InternationalSee distributors
ShippingStandard overnight for United States, inquire for international
Storage, safety and handling
H-phraseH303, H313, H333
Hazard symbolXN
Intended useResearch Use Only (RUO)
R-phraseR20, R21, R22
UNSPSC12352200
Related products
Cell Meter™ Intracellular Fluorimetric Hydrogen Peroxide Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Intracellular Fluorimetric Hydrogen Peroxide Assay Kit *Blue Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Intracellular Fluorimetric Hydrogen Peroxide Assay Kit *Blue Fluorescence Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ Intracellular Fluorimetric Hydrogen Peroxide Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ Mitochondrial Hydroxyl Radical Detection Kit *Red Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Mitochondrial Superoxide Activity Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Intracellular Peroxynitrite Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Intracellular Peroxynitrite Assay Kit *Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Intracellular Nitric Oxide (NO) Activity Assay Kit *Orange Fluorescence Optimized for Microplate Reader*
Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Intracellular Nitric Oxide (NO) Activity Assay Kit *Orange Fluorescence Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Intracellular Nitric Oxide (NO) Activity Assay Kit *Red Fluorescence Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ Live Cell Caspase 3/7 Binding Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Live Cell Caspase 3/7 Binding Assay Kit *Red Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Live Cell Caspase 1 Binding Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Live Cell Caspase 2 Binding Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Live Cell Caspase 6 Binding Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Live Cell Caspase 8 Binding Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Live Cell Caspase 9 Binding Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Live Cell Caspase 10 Binding Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Live Cell Caspase 13 Binding Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ No-Wash Live Cell Caspase 3/7 Activity Assay Kit *Blue Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ No-Wash Live Cell Caspase 3/7 Activity Assay Kit *Red Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Intracellular pH Assay Kit
Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Cell Cytotoxicity Assay Kit
Cell Meter™ Cell Viability Assay Kit *Red Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Cell Viability Assay Kit *Blue Fluorescence with 405 nm Excitation*
Cell Meter™ Cell Viability Assay Kit *Blue Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Cell Viability Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Cell Viability Assay Kit *NIR Fluorescence Optimized for Fluorescence Microplate Reader*
Cell Meter™ Phosphatidylserine Apoptosis Assay Kit *Blue Fluorescence Optimized for Microplate Readers*
Cell Meter™ Phosphatidylserine Apoptosis Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence Optimized for Microplate Readers*
Cell Meter™ Phosphatidylserine Apoptosis Assay Kit *Red Fluorescence Optimized for Microplate Readers*
Cell Meter™ Phosphatidylserine Apoptosis Assay Kit *Deep Red Fluorescence Optimized for Microplate Readers*
Cell Meter™ Phosphatidylserine Apoptosis Assay Kit *Orange Fluorescence Optimized for Microplate Readers*
Cell Meter™ Caspase 3/7 Activity Apoptosis Assay Kit *Blue Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Caspase 3/7 Activity Apoptosis Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Caspase 3/7 Activity Apoptosis Assay Kit *Red Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Caspase 8 Activity Apoptosis Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Caspase 9 Activity Apoptosis Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ JC-10 Mitochondrion Membrane Potential Assay Kit *Optimized for Microplate Assays*
Cell Meter™ JC-10 Mitochondrion Membrane Potential Assay Kit *Optimized for Flow Cytometry Assays*
Cell Meter™ NIR Mitochondrion Membrane Potential Assay Kit *Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ NIR Mitochondrion Membrane Potential Assay Kit *Optimized for Microplate Reader*
Cell Meter™ Mitochondrion Membrane Potential Assay Kit *Orange Fluorescence Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ Mitochondrion Membrane Potential Assay Kit *Orange Fluorescence Optimized for Microplate Reader*
Cell Meter™ Intracellular GSH Assay Kit *Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ Nuclear Apoptosis Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ Caspase 8 Activity Apoptosis Assay Kit *Blue Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Caspase 9 Activity Apoptosis Assay Kit *Blue Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Caspase 8 Activity Apoptosis Assay Kit *Red Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Caspase 9 Activity Apoptosis Assay Kit *Red Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Multiplexing Caspase 3/7, 8 and 9 Activity Assay Kit *Triple Fluorescence Colors*
Cell Meter™ Generic Fluorimetric Caspase Activity Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ Generic Fluorimetric Caspase Binding Assay Kit *Red Fluorescence Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ Caspase 3/7 Activity Apoptosis Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ Annexin V Binding Apoptosis Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ Annexin V Binding Apoptosis Assay Kit *Orange Fluorescence Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ Annexin V Binding Apoptosis Assay Kit *Red Fluorescence Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ Annexin V Binding Apoptosis Assay Kit *Deep Red Fluorescence Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ Annexin V Binding Apoptosis Assay Kit *Blue Fluorescence Excited at 405 nm*
Cell Meter™ Annexin V Binding Apoptosis Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence Excited at 405 nm*
Cell Meter™ Annexin V Binding Apoptosis Assay Kit *Orange Fluorescence Excited at 405 nm*
Cell Meter™ Phosphatidylserine Apoptosis Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ Phosphatidylserine Apoptosis Assay Kit *Deep Red Fluorescence Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ Phosphatidylserine Apoptosis Assay Kit *Blue Fluorescence Excited at 405 nm*
Cell Meter™ Phosphatidylserine Apoptosis Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence Excited at 405 nm*
Cell Meter™ APC-Annexin V Binding Apoptosis Assay Kit *Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ PE-Annexin V Binding Apoptosis Assay Kit *Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ Apoptotic and Necrotic Multiplexing Detection Kit I *Triple Fluorescence Colors*
Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Live Cell Cycle Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Fixed Cell Cycle Assay Kit *Red Fluorescence Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ Apoptotic and Necrotic Multiplexing Detection Kit II *Triple Fluorescence Colors*
Cell Meter™ Live Cell TUNEL Apoptosis Assay Kit *Red Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Live Cell Cycle Assay Kit *Optimized for 405 nm Violet Laser Excitation*
Cell Meter™ Live Cell Caspase 3/7 and Phosphatidylserine Detection Kit *Triple Fluorescence Colors*
Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Intracellular Total ROS Activity Assay Kit*Green Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Intracellular Total ROS Activity Assay Kit*Red Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Intracellular Total ROS Activity Assay Kit*Orange Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Intracellular Total ROS Activity Assay Kit*Deep Red Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Intracellular Total ROS Activity Assay Kit*Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Mitochondrial Superoxide Activity Assay Kit*Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Mitochondrial Superoxide Activity Assay Kit*Optimized for Microplate Reader*
Cell Meter™ Autophagy Fluorescence Imaging Kit
Cell Meter™ FITC-Annexin V Binding Apoptosis Assay Kit *Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Intracellular Nitric Oxide (NO) Activity Assay Kit *NIR Fluorescence Optimized for Microplate Reader*
Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Intracellular Nitric Oxide (NO) Activity Assay Kit *NIR Fluorescence Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ Colorimetric WST-8 Cell Quantification Kit
Cell Meter™ Multiplexing Live, Apoptotic and Necrotic Cell Detection Kit III *Triple Fluorescence Colors*
Cell Meter™ 2-NBDG Glucose Uptake Assay Kit
Cell Meter™ Intracellular NADH/NADPH Fluorescence Imaging Kit *Red Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Intracellular NADH/NADPH Flow Cytometric Analysis Kit *Red Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Live Cell TUNEL Apoptosis Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ No Wash and Probenecid-Free Endpoint Calcium Assay Kit *Optimized for microplate reader*
Cell Meter™ Mitochondrion Membrane Potential Assay Kit *Red Fluorescence Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ Mitochondrion Membrane Potential Assay Kit *Red Fluorescence Optimized for Microplate Reader*
Cell Meter™ Intracellular Colorimetric Lipid Peroxidation (MDA) Assay Kit
Cell Meter™ Flow Cytometric Calcium Assay Kit
Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Live Cell Cycle Assay Kit *Red Fluorescence Optimized for Flow Cytometry*
Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Cellular Lipid Peroxidation Assay Kit
Cell Meter™ Intracellular NADH/NADPH Fluorescence Imaging Kit *Deep Red Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Intracellular NADH/NADPH Flow Cytometric Analysis Kit *Deep Red Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Intracellular GSH Assay Kit *Optimized for Flow Cytometry with 405 nm excitation*
Cell Meter™ Mitochondrial Autophagy Imaging Kit *Red Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ BX520 fixable viability dye
Cell Meter™ BX590 fixable viability dye
Cell Meter™ BX650 fixable viability dye
Cell Meter™ IX830 fixable viability dye
Cell Meter™ RX660 fixable viability dye
Cell Meter™ RX700 fixable viability dye
Cell Meter™ RX780 fixable viability dye
Cell Meter™ VX450 fixable viability dye
Cell Meter™ VX500 fixable viability dye
Cell Meter™ Live Cell Caspase 8 Binding Assay Kit *Red Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Fixed Cell and Tissue TUNEL Apoptosis Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Fixed Cell and Tissue TUNEL Apoptosis Assay Kit *Red Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Cellular Voltage Assay Kit
Cell Meter™ Cell Adhesion Assay Kit
Cell Meter™ Fixed Cell and Tissue TUNEL Apoptosis Assay Kit *Deep Red Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Fixed Cell and Tissue TUNEL Apoptosis Assay Kit *Blue Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Fluorescence Gap Junction Tracing Kit
Cell Meter™ Colorimetric MTT Cell Proliferation Kit
Cell Meter™ Live Cell Caspase 3/7 Imaging Kit *Green Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Beta-Arrestin Translocation GPCR Signaling Kit
Cell Meter™ Live Cell ATP Assay Kit
Cell Meter™ Colorimetric Cell Cytotoxicity Assay Kit
Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Phagocytosis Assay Kit *Red Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Cellular Senescence Activity Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Cellular Senescence Activity Assay Kit *Red Fluorescence*
Cell Meter™ Cell Proliferation Assay Kit
Show More (129)

OverviewpdfSDSpdfProtocol


Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved degradation process that targets long-lived proteins, organelles, and other cytoplasmic components for degradation via the lysosomal pathway. The autophagy pathway is complementary to the action of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway which typically degrades short-lived proteins. Activation of the autophagy pathway is required for multiple cellular roles, including survival during starvation, the clearance of intracellular components, development, and immunity. In the absence of stress, autophagy serves a house-keeping function, removing damaged organelles and cellular components preventing cytotoxic effects. Decreases and defects in autophagy have been implicated in multiple diseases, for example Huntingtons, Alzheimers, and Parkinsons. In terms of cancer development, autophagy seems to play multiple roles. Decreased or absent expression of certain autophagy proteins, such as Beclin-1 and Bif-1, increases tumor susceptibility in mice while the overexpression of these proteins can repress cancer cell growth. However, autophagy is critical for the survival of cancer cells within the nutrient poor and hypoxic core of solid tumors. Cell Meter™ Autophagy Kit employs Autophagy Blue™ as a specific autophagosome marker to analyze the activity of autophagy. The assay is optimized for direct detection of autophagy in both detached and attached cells. The kit provides all the essential components for the assay protocol. Cell Meter™ Autophagy Kit is suitable for fluorescence microscope, fluorescence microplate reader.

Platform


Fluorescence microscope

ExcitationDAPI channel
EmissionDAPI channel
Recommended plateBlack wall/clear bottom

Fluorescence microplate reader

Excitation330 nm
Emission520 nm
Cutoff475 nm
Recommended plateBlack wall/clear bottom
Instrument specification(s)Bottom read mode

Components


Component A: 500X Autophagy Blue™1 vial (50 µL)
Component B: Stain Buffer1 bottle (25 mL)
Component C: Wash Buffer1 bottle (100 mL)

Example protocol


AT A GLANCE

Protocol summary

  1. Prepare cells with your test compounds at the density of 1 - 2 × 104 cells/well
  2. Add Autophagy Blue™ working solution
  3. Incubate at 37°C for 15 - 60 minutes
  4. Wash the cells with Wash Buffer
  5. Monitor the fluorescence increase at Ex/Em= 330/520 nm (Cutoff = 475 nm), fluorescence microscope with DAPI filter set

Important notes
Thaw all the components at room temperature before starting the experiment.

PREPARATION OF WORKING SOLUTION

Add 20 μL of 500X Autophagy Blue™ (Component A) into 10 mL of Stain Buffer (Component B) and mix well to make Autophagy Blue™ working solution. Protect from light. Note: 20 μL of 500X Autophagy Blue™ (Component A) is enough for one 96-well plate.

For guidelines on cell sample preparation, please visit
https://www.aatbio.com/resources/guides/cell-sample-preparation.html

SAMPLE EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL

  1. Culture cells to a density optimal for autophagy induction according to your specific induction protocol (about 1 - 2 x 104 cells/well/96-well plate). At the same time, culture a non-induced negative control cell population at the same density as the induced population for every labeling condition.

  2. Remove medium.

  3. Add 100 µL/well (96-well plate) or 25 µL/well (384-well plate) of Autophagy Blue™ working solution into each well.

  4. Incubate the cells in a 37°C, 5% CO2 incubator for 15 to 60 minutes. Note: The appropriate incubation time depends on the individual cell type and cell concentration used. Optimize the incubation time for each experiment.

  5. Wash the cells with Wash Buffer (Component C) for 3 - 4 times, then add 100 µL Wash Buffer (Component C) to each well. Note: It is recommended to increase either the labeling concentration or the incubation time to allow the dye to accumulate if the cells do not appear to be sufficiently stained.

  6. Monitor the fluorescence intensity with a fluorescence microplate reader at Ex/Em = 330/520 nm (Cutoff = 475 nm), a fluorescence microscope with DAPI filter set.

Citations


View all 11 citations: Citation Explorer
GDF-15 Deficiency Reduces Autophagic Activity in Human Macrophages In Vitro and Decreases p62-Accumulation in Atherosclerotic Lesions in Mice
Authors: Heduschke, Aline and Ackermann, Kathrin and Wilhelm, Beate and Mey, Lilli and Bonaterra, Gabriel Alejandro and Kinscherf, Ralf and Schwarz, Anja
Journal: Cells (2021): 2346
Effects of miR-34b/miR-892a upregulation and inhibition of ABCB1/ABCB4 on melatonin-induced apoptosis in VCR-resistant oral cancer cells
Authors: Hsieh, Ming-Ju and Lin, Chiao-Wen and Su, Shih-Chi and Reiter, Russel J and Chen, Andy Wei-Ge and Chen, Mu-Kuan and Yang, Shun-Fa
Journal: Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2020): 877--889
Decreased expression of LRA4, a key gene involved in rhamnose metabolism, caused up-regulated expression of the genes in this pathway and autophagy in Pichia pastoris
Authors: Jiao, Jian and Wang, Shuai and Tian, Hui and Xu, Xinxin and Zhang, Yuhong and Liu, Bo and Zhang, Wei
Journal: AMB Express (2020): 1--9
The inhibitory effect of TU-100 on hepatic stellate cell activation in the tumor microenvironment
Authors: Wada, Yuma and Tokuda, Kazunori and Morine, Yuji and Okikawa, Shohei and Yamashita, Shoko and Ikemoto, Tetsuya and Imura, Satoru and Saito, Yu and Yamada, Shinichiro and Shimada, Mitsuo
Journal: Oncotarget (2020): 4593
Sonodynamic therapy inhibits palmitate-induced beta cell dysfunction via PINK1/Parkin-dependent mitophagy
Authors: Guo, Tian and Liu, Tianyang and Sun, Yun and Liu, Xianna and Xiong, Rongguo and Li, He and Li, Zhitao and Zhang, Zhiguo and Tian, Zhen and Tian, Ye
Journal: Cell death & disease (2019): 457
Cell Cycle Arrest and Autophagy Induced by Compound Kushen Injection in sw620 and sw480 Colorectal Cancer Cells with p53 Mutation
Authors: Sun, Jie and Wang, Di and Zhang, Yu and Mu, Qing and Li, Mei and Hou, Xiaoli and Chen, Jingyi and Yu, Xin and Wang, Shaojie and Yu, Weidong
Journal: (2019)
Blue light-emitting diodes induce autophagy in colon cancer cells by Opsin 3
Authors: Yoshimoto, Toshiaki and Morine, Yuji and Takasu, Chie and Feng, Rui and Ikemoto, Tetsuya and Yoshikawa, Kozo and Iwahashi, Syuichi and Saito, Yu and Kashihara, Hideya and Akutagawa, Masatake and others,
Journal: Annals of gastroenterological surgery (2018): 154--161
Methods for Measuring Autophagy Levels in Disease
Authors: Phadwal, Kanchan and Kurian, Dominic
Journal: (2017): 195--211
Methods for Measuring Autophagy Levels in Disease
Authors: Phadwal, Kanchan and Kurian, Dominic
Journal: (2017): 195--211
High glucose induces bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell senescence by upregulating autophagy
Authors: Chang, Tzu-Ching and Hsu, Min-Fen and Wu, Kenneth K
Journal: PloS one (2015): e0126537

References


View all 28 references: Citation Explorer
beta-Elemene induces apoptosis as well as protective autophagy in human non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells
Authors: Liu J, Hu XJ, Jin B, Qu XJ, Hou KZ, Liu YP.
Journal: J Pharm Pharmacol (2012): 146
Tgf-beta1 induces autophagy and promotes apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells
Authors: Xu Y, Yang S, Huang J, Ruan S, Zheng Z, Lin J.
Journal: Int J Mol Med. (2012)
High-Throughput Screening for AntiInfluenza A Virus Drugs and Study of the Mechanism of Procyanidin on Influenza A VirusInduced Autophagy
Authors: Dai J, Wang G, Li W, Zhang L, Yang J, Zhao X, Chen X, Xu Y, Li K.
Journal: J Biomol Screen. (2012)
An autophagy inhibitor enhances the inhibition of cell proliferation
Authors: Yao F, Wang G, Wei W, Tu Y, Tong H, Sun S.
Journal: Mol Med Report (2012): 84
Inhibition of induced autophagy increases apoptosis of Nara-H cells
Authors: Nakamura O, Hitora T, Akisue T, Kawamoto T, Yamagami Y, Yamamoto T.
Journal: Int J Oncol (2011): 1545
A new fluorescence-based assay for autophagy
Authors: Proikas-Cezanne T, Codogno P.
Journal: Chem Biol (2011): 940
Reactive oxygen species contribute to oridonin-induced apoptosis and autophagy in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells
Authors: Zhang YH, Wu YL, Tashiro S, Onodera S, Ikejima T.
Journal: Acta Pharmacol Sin (2011): 1266
Salvianolic acid B inhibits autophagy and protects starving cardiac myocytes
Authors: Han X, Liu JX, Li XZ.
Journal: Acta Pharmacol Sin (2011): 38
Quantification of nonselective bulk autophagy in S. cerevisiae using Pgk1-GFP
Authors: Welter E, Thumm M, Krick R.
Journal: Autophagy (2010): 794
Concomitant inhibition of AKT and autophagy is required for efficient cisplatin-induced apoptosis of metastatic skin carcinoma
Authors: Claerhout S, Verschooten L, Van Kelst S, De Vos R, Proby C, Agostinis P, Garmyn M.
Journal: Int J Cancer (2010): 2790