AAT Bioquest

DiYO™-1 [equivalent to YOYO®-1] *5 mM DMSO Solution*

Product Image
Product Image
Gallery Image 1
Ordering information
Catalog Number
Unit Size
Add to cart
Additional ordering information
InternationalSee distributors
Bulk requestInquire
Custom sizeInquire
ShippingStandard overnight for United States, inquire for international
Request quotation
Physical properties
Molecular weight1270.65
Spectral properties
Extinction coefficient (cm -1 M -1)989001
Excitation (nm)491
Emission (nm)508
Quantum yield0.521
Storage, safety and handling
H-phraseH303, H313, H340
Hazard symbolT
Intended useResearch Use Only (RUO)
R-phraseR20, R21, R68
StorageFreeze (< -15 °C); Minimize light exposure


Molecular weight
Extinction coefficient (cm -1 M -1)
Excitation (nm)
Emission (nm)
Quantum yield
DiYO™-1 is chemically equivalent to YOYO®-1 (YOYO® is the trademark of Invitrogen). DiYO™-1 is a carbocyanine dimer with green fluorescence similar to FITC. It is cell-impermeant and easily distinguished from Cy5 and rhodamines as a nuclear counterstain and dead cell indicator. It is non-fluorescent in the absence of nucleic acids, and generates a very bright fluorescence signal upon binding to DNA. DiYO™-1 gives strong and selective nuclear staining in cultured cells and in paraffin sections. Simultaneous labeling with cell-permeable Nuclear Red™ LCS1 dye and cell-impermeant DiYO®-1 can be used to assess cell viability. DiYO™-1 and Nuclear Red™ both have much greater extinction coefficients than that of DNA-bound propidium iodide.


Fluorescence microscope

ExcitationFITC filter set
EmissionFITC filter set
Recommended plateBlack wall/clear bottom
Instrument specification(s)FITC filter set

Example protocol


DiYO™-1 working solution
Make DiYO™-1 working solution in Hanks with 20 mM Hepes buffer (HH buffer) or buffer of your choice at your desired concentration.
Note     In initial experiments, it may be best to try several dye concentrations to determine the optimal concentration that yields the desired result. High dye concentration tends to cause nonspecific staining of other cellular structures.


Caution: The following protocol can be adapted for most cell types. Growth medium, cell density, the presence of other cell types and factors may influence staining. Residual detergent on glassware may also affect staining of many organisms, and cause brightly stained material to appear in solutions with or without cells present.
  1. Grow and treat cells as desired.
  2. Remove the cell culture medium and fix cells.
  3. Add DiYO™-1 working solution (1 to 10 µM) into the cells (either suspension or adherent cells), and stain the cells for 15 to 60 minutes.
  4. Remove the dye working solution and add HH buffer or buffer of your choice.
  5. Analyze the cellular staining with a fluorescence microscope using FITC filter. 


Common stock solution preparation

Table 1. Volume of DMSO needed to reconstitute specific mass of DiYO™-1 [equivalent to YOYO®-1] *5 mM DMSO Solution* to given concentration. Note that volume is only for preparing stock solution. Refer to sample experimental protocol for appropriate experimental/physiological buffers.

0.1 mg0.5 mg1 mg5 mg10 mg
1 mM78.7 µL393.499 µL786.999 µL3.935 mL7.87 mL
5 mM15.74 µL78.7 µL157.4 µL786.999 µL1.574 mL
10 mM7.87 µL39.35 µL78.7 µL393.499 µL786.999 µL

Molarity calculator

Enter any two values (mass, volume, concentration) to calculate the third.

Mass (Calculate)Molecular weightVolume (Calculate)Concentration (Calculate)Moles


Open in Advanced Spectrum Viewer

Spectral properties

Extinction coefficient (cm -1 M -1)989001
Excitation (nm)491
Emission (nm)508
Quantum yield0.521



View all 9 citations: Citation Explorer
Self-modifying NanoEnhancers facilitating lysosomal escape for cGAS-STING cascading activation in tumor immunotherapy
Authors: Ge, Yanni and Bao, Yuheng and Shao, An and Jin, Kai and Mao, Zhengwei and Tong, Weijun and Ye, Juan
Journal: Nano Today (2024): 102391
Protective Effect of Ergothioneine against Oxidative Stress-Induced Chondrocyte Death
Authors: Sakata, Shuzo and Kunimatsu, Ryo and Tanimoto, Kotaro
Journal: Antioxidants (2024): 800
The RIPK1 death domain restrains ZBP1-and TRIF-mediated cell death and inflammation
Authors: Imai, Takashi and Lin, Juan and Kaya, G{\"o}ksu G{\"o}kberk and Ju, Eunjin and Kondylis, Vangelis and Kelepouras, Konstantinos and Liccardi, Gianmaria and Kim, Chun and Pasparakis, Manolis
Journal: Immunity (2024)
Smooth muscle cell specific NEMO deficiency inhibits atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice
Authors: Imai, Takashi and Van, Trieu-My and Pasparakis, Manolis and Polykratis, Apostolos
Journal: Scientific Reports (2022): 1--12
GRP75-driven, cell-cycle-dependent macropinocytosis of Tat/pDNA-Ca2+ nanoparticles underlies distinct gene therapy effect in ovarian cancer
Authors: Su, Linjia and Sun, Zhe and Qi, Fangzheng and Su, Huishan and Qian, Luomeng and Li, Jing and Zuo, Liang and Huang, Jinhai and Yu, Zhilin and Li, Jinping and others,
Journal: Journal of Nanobiotechnology (2022): 1--20
Extracellular DNA: A Critical Aspect of Marine Biofilms
Authors: Tuck, Benjamin and Salgar-Chaparro, Silvia J and Watkin, Elizabeth and Somers, Anthony and Forsyth, Maria and Machuca, Laura L
Journal: Microorganisms (2022): 1285
A viral ubiquitination switch attenuates innate immunity and triggers nuclear import of virion DNA and infection
Authors: Bauer, Michael and Gomez-Gonzalez, Alfonso and Suomalainen, Maarit and Schilling, Nicolas and Hemmi, Silvio and Greber, Urs F
Journal: Science advances (2021): eabl7150
Characterizing single-molecule conformational changes under shear flow with fluorescence microscopy
Authors: Pisapati, Avani V and Wang, Yi and Blauch, Megan E and Wittenberg, Nathan J and Cheng, Xuanhong and Zhang, X Frank
Journal: JoVE (Journal of Visualized Experiments) (2020): e60784
The E3 ubiquitin ligase Mind bomb 1 enhances nuclear import of viral DNA by inactivating a virion linchpin protein that suppresses exposure of virion pathogen-associated molecular patterns
Authors: Bauer, Michael and Gomez-Gonzalez, Alfonso and Suomalainen, Maarit and Hemmi, Silvio and Greber, Urs F
Journal: bioRxiv (2020)


View all 22 references: Citation Explorer
Plasmalemma permeability and necrotic cell death phenotypes after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice
Authors: Zhu X, Tao L, Tejima-M and eville E, Qiu J, Park J, Garber K, Ericsson M, Lo EH, Whalen MJ.
Journal: Stroke (2012): 524
Intra-organ Biodistribution of Gold Nanoparticles Using Intrinsic Two-photon Induced Photoluminescence
Authors: Park J, Estrada A, Schwartz JA, Diagaradjane P, Krishnan S, Dunn AK, Tunnell JW.
Journal: Lasers Surg Med (2010): 630
Screening by imaging: scaling up single-DNA-molecule analysis with a novel parabolic VA-TIRF reflector and noise-reduction techniques
Authors: van 't Hoff M, Reuter M, Dryden DT, Oheim M.
Journal: Phys Chem Chem Phys (2009): 7713
Novel anatomic structures in the brain and spinal cord of rabbit that may belong to the Bonghan system of potential acupuncture meridians
Authors: Lee BC, Kim S, Soh KS.
Journal: J Acupunct Meridian Stud (2008): 29
Triplet fraction buildup effect of the DNA-YOYO complex studied with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy
Authors: Shimizu M, Sasaki S, Kinjo M.
Journal: Anal Biochem (2007): 87
Implementation of accurate and fast DNA cytometry by confocal microscopy in 3D
Authors: Ploeger LS, Huisman A, van der Gugten J, van der Giezen DM, Belien JA, Abbaker AY, Dullens HF, Grizzle W, Poulin NM, Meijer GA, van Diest PJ.
Journal: Cell Oncol (2005): 225
DNA length evaluation using cyanine dye and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy
Authors: Shimizu M, Sasaki S, Tsuruoka M.
Journal: Biomacromolecules (2005): 2703
TO-PRO-3 is an optimal fluorescent dye for nuclear counterstaining in dual-colour FISH on paraffin sections
Authors: Bink K, Walch A, Feuchtinger A, Eisenmann H, Hutzler P, Hofler H, Werner M.
Journal: Histochem Cell Biol (2001): 293
Oxazole yellow homodimer YOYO-1-labeled DNA: a fluorescent complex that can be used to assess structural changes in DNA following formation and cellular delivery of cationic lipid DNA complexes
Authors: Wong M, Kong S, Dragowska WH, Bally MB.
Journal: Biochim Biophys Acta (2001): 61
Photophysical properties of fluorescent DNA-dyes bound to single- and double-stranded DNA in aqueous buffered solution
Authors: Cosa G, Focsaneanu KS, McLean JR, McNamee JP, Scaiano JC.
Journal: Photochem Photobiol (2001): 585