AAT Bioquest

What is needed for translation?

Posted June 22, 2020


The key components required for translation are mRNA, ribosomes, transfer RNA (tRNA) and various enzymatic factors.

  • mRNA: mRNA carries the sequence information for the protein to be synthesized. Each three bases in mRNA are read as a codon; each codon codes for a particular amino acid.
  • Ribosomes: A ribosome is a complex macromolecular machine where mRNA translation takes place. It consists of two major subunits, the small and the large subunits, both of which contain multiple ribosomal RNA (rRNA) molecules and many ribosomal proteins. The small subunit is responsible for binding mRNA, while the large subunit binds tRNAs.
  • tRNAs: tRNA serves as an adaptor in translation. Each tRNA molecule has an anticodon that is complementary to the mRNA codon and a corresponding amino acid attached at the opposite end.
  • Aminoacyl-rRNA synthetases: These enzymes link amino acids to their corresponding tRNA molecules, which are later chained into a polypeptide.
Additional resources

Helixyte™ Green *10,000X Aqueous PCR Solution*

6-ROX glycine *25 uM fluorescence reference solution for PCR reactions*

Perdew, G. H., Heuvel, J. P. V., & Peters, J. M. (2008). Regulation of gene expression. Springer Science & Business Media.

Lodish, H., Berk, A., Kaiser, C. A., Krieger, M., Scott, M. P., Bretscher, A., ... & Matsudaira, P. (2008). Molecular cell biology. Macmillan.