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iFluor® 488-Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA) Conjugate

Live HeLa cells were stained with iFluor® 488-Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA) Conjugate at 5 µg/mL for 30 minutes followed by Hoechst 33342 (AAT Cat# 17535). Image was acquired using fluorescence microscopy using FITC and DAPI filter set.
Live HeLa cells were stained with iFluor® 488-Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA) Conjugate at 5 µg/mL for 30 minutes followed by Hoechst 33342 (AAT Cat# 17535). Image was acquired using fluorescence microscopy using FITC and DAPI filter set.
Ordering information
Price ()
Catalog Number25530
Unit Size
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Additional ordering information
Telephone1-408-733-1055
Fax1-408-733-1304
Emailsales@aatbio.com
InternationalSee distributors
ShippingStandard overnight for United States, inquire for international
Physical properties
Molecular weightN/A
SolventWater
Spectral properties
Correction Factor (260 nm)0.21
Correction Factor (280 nm)0.11
Extinction coefficient (cm -1 M -1)750001
Excitation (nm)491
Emission (nm)516
Quantum yield0.91
Storage, safety and handling
Certificate of OriginDownload PDF
H-phraseH303, H313, H333
Hazard symbolXN
Intended useResearch Use Only (RUO)
R-phraseR20, R21, R22
StorageFreeze (< -15 °C); Minimize light exposure
UNSPSC12171501
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iFluor® 450 succinimidyl ester
iFluor® 840 succinimidyl ester
iFluor® 560 succinimidyl ester
iFluor® 670 succinimidyl ester
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Show More (262)

OverviewpdfSDSpdfProtocol


Molecular weight
N/A
Correction Factor (260 nm)
0.21
Correction Factor (280 nm)
0.11
Extinction coefficient (cm -1 M -1)
750001
Excitation (nm)
491
Emission (nm)
516
Quantum yield
0.91
Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) is a lectin that binds to N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and sialic acid. It is of the most studied and useful lectins for it biological applications. Since WGA binds to glycoconjugates its derivatives and conjugates are widely used to label cell membranes and fibrotic scar tissue for fluorescence imaging and analysis. The carbohydrate-binding specificity of WGA is directed against sequences of β-1,4-GlcNAc-linked residues, the chitodextrins. Each monomer contains two identical, non-interacting binding sites which are complementary to 3 or 4 β-1,4-GlcNAc units. Of the monosaccharides examined, only GlcNAc binds to WGA. ManNAc does not bind and GalNAc binds only weakly. WGA binds with high affinity to internal GlcNAc residues in large oligosaccharides containing repeat sequences of Gal beta(1----4)GlcNAc beta(1----3) (i.e. polylactosamine-type glycans). N-Acetylneuraminic acid is involved only in low-affinity interactions with WGA. WGA displays an intricate pattern of saccharide specificities that might be used for structural analysis of complex carbohydrates. iFluor®488 conjugate of WGA might be the brightest WGA conjugate. It exhibits the bright and green fluorescence of the iFluor® 488 dye. iFluor®488 WGA conjugate binds to sialic acid and N-acetylglucosaminyl residues as AF488 WGA conjugate does.

Platform


Fluorescence microscope

ExcitationFITC filter set
EmissionFITC filter set
Recommended plateBlack wall/clear bottom

Example protocol


PREPARATION OF STOCK SOLUTIONS

Unless otherwise noted, all unused stock solutions should be divided into single-use aliquots and stored at -20 °C after preparation. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.

iFluor™ 488-Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA) Conjugate stock solution (200X)
Add 500 µL of ddH2O into the powder form to make 2 mg/mL stock solution.
Note     The reconstituted conjugate solution can be stored at 2-8 °C for short-term storage or at -20 °C for long-term storage.

PREPARATION OF WORKING SOLUTION

iFluor™ 488-Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA) Conjugate working solution (1X)
Add 5 µL of 200X WGA conjugate solution to 1 mL HHBS Buffer.
Note     The optimized staining concentration may be different with different cell lines. The recommended starting concentration is 5-10 µg/mL for live cells.

SAMPLE EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL

Warm the vial to room temperature centrifuge briefly before opening. Staining protocols vary with applications. Appropriate dilution of conjugates should be determined experimentally.

Live Cells Stain
  1. Wash cells twice with a HHBS buffer.
  2. Add 100 µL iFluor™ 488-WGA working solution.
  3. Incubate cells with WGA working solution for 10-30 minutes at 37 °C.
  4. Wash cells twice with HHBS buffer.
  5. Image cells on a fluorescence microscope using FITC filter set. 

Fixed Cells Stain
WGA conjugates can be also used to stain fixed cells.
  1. Fix cells with 4% Formaldehyde in PBS.
    Note     For fixed cell membrane staining, it is recommended to stain without permeabilization step. Permeabilized step can after fixation will lead to intracellular compartments stain such as Golgi and Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) structures.
  2. Add 100 µL iFluor™ 488-WGA working solution.
  3. Incubate cells with WGA working solution for 10-30 minutes at room temperature.
  4. Wash cells twice with HHBS buffer.
  5. Image cells on a fluorescence microscope using FITC filter set. 

Spectrum


Open in Advanced Spectrum Viewer
spectrum

Spectral properties

Correction Factor (260 nm)0.21
Correction Factor (280 nm)0.11
Extinction coefficient (cm -1 M -1)750001
Excitation (nm)491
Emission (nm)516
Quantum yield0.91

Product family


NameExcitation (nm)Emission (nm)Extinction coefficient (cm -1 M -1)Quantum yieldCorrection Factor (260 nm)Correction Factor (280 nm)
iFluor® 555-Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA) Conjugate55757010000010.6410.230.14
iFluor® 594-Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA) Conjugate58860418000010.5310.050.04
iFluor® 647-Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA) Conjugate65667025000010.2510.030.03

Citations


View all 2 citations: Citation Explorer
Mitochondrial damage and activation of the cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS--STING pathway lead to cardiac pyroptosis and hypertrophy in diabetic cardiomyopathy mice
Authors: Yan, Meiling and Li, Yun and Luo, Qingmao and Zeng, Wenru and Shao, Xiaoqi and Li, Lun and Wang, Qing and Wang, Dongwei and Zhang, Yue and Diao, Hongtao and others,
Journal: Cell death discovery (2022): 1--12
Protective Effect of Ischemic Postconditioning Combined with Nicorandil on Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Rats
Authors: Xia, Zongyi and Chen, Bing and Zhou, Chi and Wang, Yitian and Ren, Jinyang and Yao, Xujin and Wan, Qi and Lian, Zhexun
Journal: (2022)

References


View all 50 references: Citation Explorer
Wheat germ agglutinin is involved in the protective action of 24-epibrassinolide on the roots of wheat seedlings under drought conditions.
Authors: Avalbaev, Azamat and Bezrukova, Marina and Allagulova, Chulpan and Lubyanova, Alsu and Kudoyarova, Guzel and Fedorova, Kristina and Maslennikova, Dilara and Yuldashev, Ruslan and Shakirova, Farida
Journal: Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB (2020): 420-427
Membrane-associated gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase in the context of concanavalin A- and wheat germ agglutinin-reactive glycans mark seminal prostasome populations from normozoospermic and oligozoospermic men.
Authors: Janković, Tamara and Goč, Sanja and Mitić, Ninoslav and Danilović Luković, Jelena and Janković, Miroslava
Journal: Upsala journal of medical sciences (2020): 10-18
Succinylated Wheat Germ Agglutinin Colocalizes with the Toxoplasma gondii Cyst Wall Glycoprotein CST1.
Authors: Guevara, Rebekah B and Fox, Barbara A and Bzik, David J
Journal: mSphere (2020)
Wheat germ agglutinin is a biomarker of whole grain content in wheat flour and pasta.
Authors: Killilea, David W and McQueen, Rebecca and Abegania, Judi R
Journal: Journal of food science (2020): 808-815
Wheat germ agglutinin liposomes with surface grafted cyclodextrins as bioadhesive dual-drug delivery nanocarriers to treat oral cells.
Authors: Wijetunge, Sashini S and Wen, Jianchuan and Yeh, Chih-Ko and Sun, Yuyu
Journal: Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces (2020): 110572
Wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated fluorescent pH sensors for visualizing proton fluxes.
Authors: Zhang, Lejie and Zhang, Mei and Bellve, Karl and Fogarty, Kevin E and Castro, Maite A and Brauchi, Sebastian and Kobertz, William R
Journal: The Journal of general physiology (2020)
Bacterial expression, purification and biophysical characterization of wheat germ agglutinin and its four hevein-like domains.
Authors: Leyva, Eduardo and Medrano-Cerano, Jorge L and Cano-Sánchez, Patricia and López-González, Itzel and Gómez-Velasco, Homero and Del Río-Portilla, Federico and García-Hernández, Enrique
Journal: Biopolymers (2019): e23242
Targeted delivery of etoposide, carmustine and doxorubicin to human glioblastoma cells using methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)‑poly(ε‑caprolactone) nanoparticles conjugated with wheat germ agglutinin and folic acid.
Authors: Kuo, Yung-Chih and Chang, Yu-Hsuan and Rajesh, Rajendiran
Journal: Materials science & engineering. C, Materials for biological applications (2019): 114-128
Wheat Germ Agglutinin as a Potential Therapeutic Agent for Leukemia.
Authors: Ryva, Bradley and Zhang, Keman and Asthana, Abhishek and Wong, Derek and Vicioso, Yorleny and Parameswaran, Reshmi
Journal: Frontiers in oncology (2019): 100
Enhanced anti-colon cancer efficacy of 5-fluorouracil by epigallocatechin-3- gallate co-loaded in wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated nanoparticles.
Authors: Wang, Ruoning and Huang, Jinyu and Chen, Jian and Yang, Mengmeng and Wang, Honglan and Qiao, Hongzhi and Chen, Zhipeng and Hu, Lihong and Di, Liuqing and Li, Junsong
Journal: Nanomedicine : nanotechnology, biology, and medicine (2019): 102068