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AAT Bioquest

Phalloidin-iFluor® 488 Conjugate

Fluorescence images of HeLa cells stained with Phalloidin-iFluor® 488 Conjugate using fluorescence microscope with a FITC filter set (Green). The cells were fixed in 4% formaldehyde, co-labeled with mitochondria dye MitoLite™ Red FX600 (Cat#2677, Red) and Nuclear Blue™ DCS1 (Cat#17548, Blue).
Fluorescence images of HeLa cells stained with Phalloidin-iFluor® 488 Conjugate using fluorescence microscope with a FITC filter set (Green). The cells were fixed in 4% formaldehyde, co-labeled with mitochondria dye MitoLite™ Red FX600 (Cat#2677, Red) and Nuclear Blue™ DCS1 (Cat#17548, Blue).
Fluorescence images of HeLa cells stained with Phalloidin-iFluor® 488 Conjugate using fluorescence microscope with a FITC filter set (Green). The cells were fixed in 4% formaldehyde, co-labeled with mitochondria dye MitoLite™ Red FX600 (Cat#2677, Red) and Nuclear Blue™ DCS1 (Cat#17548, Blue).
<strong>Figure 2.</strong> MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell grew for 24 h. Cells were stained with Phalloidin-iFluor 488 Conjugate (ATT Bioquest) following manufacturer&rsquo;s instruction. Images were acquired with a 63x/1.4NA objective on a Zeiss laser-scanning confocal microscope by the Advanced Bio-Imaging Facility (ABIF) at McGill.&nbsp;Displayed is the Max Intensity Projection of 19 images with 0.2 um spacing in Z.
Enterobacteriaceae (Lipid A) in the liver of the uninfected and the liver fluke-infected hamsters. a. An uninfected hamster. b. 3D reconstruction of the internal surface of a bile duct after confocal microscopy reveals the presence of Enterobacteriaceae Lipid A. c. Bacteria inside the gut of the O. viverrini parasite. d. Enterobacteriaceae presence inside small bile ducts of an O. viverrini–infected hamster. e. Penetration of bacteria through the injured epithelium in the bile duct of an O. felineus–infected hamster. f. A multilayered epithelium in the bile duct of a C. sinensis–infected hamster. E: epithelial cells; BD: bile duct; red color: Lipid A of Enterobacteriaceae; green color: actin filaments (Phalloidin 488 staining); blue color: nuclei (DAPI staining). E: epithelium of bile duct; BD: bile duct; G: gut of a worm. Source: <b><em>Opisthorchis viverrini</em>, <em>Clonorchis sinensis</em> and <em>Opisthorchis felineus</em> liver flukes affect mammalian host microbiome in a species-specific manner</b> by Pakharukova <em>et. al.</em>, <em>PLoS Negl Trop Dis</em>. Feb. 2023.
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Physical properties
Molecular weight~1400
SolventDMSO
Spectral properties
Correction Factor (260 nm)0.21
Correction Factor (280 nm)0.11
Extinction coefficient (cm -1 M -1)750001
Excitation (nm)491
Emission (nm)516
Quantum yield0.91
Storage, safety and handling
Certificate of OriginDownload PDF
H-phraseH301, H311, H331
Hazard symbolT
Intended useResearch Use Only (RUO)
R-phraseR23, R24, R25
StorageFreeze (< -15 °C); Minimize light exposure
UNSPSC12352200

OverviewpdfSDSpdfProtocol


Molecular weight
~1400
Correction Factor (260 nm)
0.21
Correction Factor (280 nm)
0.11
Extinction coefficient (cm -1 M -1)
750001
Excitation (nm)
491
Emission (nm)
516
Quantum yield
0.91
This green fluorescent phalloidin conjugate (equivalent to Alexa Fluor® 488-labeled phalloidin) selectively binds to F-actins with much higher photostability than the fluorescein-phalloidin conjugates. Used at nanomolar concentrations, phalloidin derivatives are convenient probes for labeling, identifying and quantitating F-actins in formaldehyde-fixed and permeabilized tissue sections, cell cultures or cell-free experiments. Phalloidin binds to actin filaments much more tightly than to actin monomers, leading to a decrease in the rate constant for the dissociation of actin subunits from filament ends, essentially stabilizing actin filaments through the prevention of filament depolymerization. Moreover, phalloidin is found to inhibit the ATP hydrolysis activity of F-actin. Phalloidin functions differently at various concentrations in cells. When introduced into the cytoplasm at low concentrations, phalloidin recruits the less polymerized forms of cytoplasmic actin as well as filamin into stable "islands" of aggregated actin polymers, yet it does not interfere with stress fibers, i.e. thick bundles of microfilaments. The property of phalloidin is a useful tool for investigating the distribution of F-actin in cells by labeling phalloidin with fluorescent analogs and using them to stain actin filaments for light microscopy. Fluorescent derivatives of phalloidin have turned out to be enormously useful in localizing actin filaments in living or fixed cells as well as for visualizing individual actin filaments in vitro. Fluorescent phalloidin derivatives have been used as an important tool in the study of actin networks at high resolution. AAT Bioquest offers a variety of fluorescent phalloidin derivatives with different colors for multicolor imaging applications.

Example protocol


AT A GLANCE

Protocol Summary
  1. Prepare samples in microplate wells
  2. Remove liquid from samples in the plate
  3. Add Phalloidin-iFluor™ 488 Conjugate solution (100 μL/well)
  4. Stain the cells at room temperature for 20 to 90 minutes
  5. Wash the cells
  6. Examine the specimen under microscope with FITC filter 
Important      Warm the vial to room temperature and centrifuge briefly before opening.

Storage and Handling Conditions
The solution should be stable for at least 6 months if store at -20 °C. Protect the fluorescent conjugates from light, and avoid freeze/thaw cycles.
Note     Phalloidin is toxic, although the amount of toxin present in a vial could be lethal only to a mosquito (LD50 of phalloidin = 2 mg/kg), it should be handled with care.

PREPARATION OF WORKING SOLUTION

Phalloidin-iFluor™ 488 Conjugate working solution
Add 1 µL of Phalloidin-iFluor™ 488 Conjugate solution to 1 mL of PBS with 1% BSA.
Note     The stock solution of phalloidin conjugate should be aliquoted and stored at -20 °C. protected from light.
Note     Different cell types might be stained differently. The concentration of phalloidin conjugate working solution should be prepared accordingly.

SAMPLE EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL

Stain the cells
  1. Perform formaldehyde fixation. Incubate cells with 3.0–4.0 % formaldehyde in PBS at room temperature for 10–30 minutes.
    Note     Avoid any methanol containing fixatives since methanol can disrupt actin during the fixation process. The preferred fixative is methanol-free formaldehyde.
  2. Rinse the fixed cells 2–3 times in PBS.
  3. Optional: Add 0.1% Triton X-100 in PBS into fixed cells for 3 to 5 minutes to increase permeability. Rinse the cells 2–3 times in PBS.
  4. Add 100 μL/well (96-well plate) of Phalloidin-iFluor™ 488 Conjugate working solution into the fixed cells, and stain the cells at room temperature for 20 to 90 minutes.
  5. Rinse cells gently with PBS 2 to 3 times to remove excess phalloidin conjugate before plating, sealing and imaging under microscope with FITC filter set. 

Spectrum


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spectrum

Spectral properties

Correction Factor (260 nm)0.21
Correction Factor (280 nm)0.11
Extinction coefficient (cm -1 M -1)750001
Excitation (nm)491
Emission (nm)516
Quantum yield0.91

Product Family


NameExcitation (nm)Emission (nm)Extinction coefficient (cm -1 M -1)Quantum yieldCorrection Factor (260 nm)Correction Factor (280 nm)
Phalloidin-iFluor® 350 Conjugate3454502000010.9510.830.23
Phalloidin-iFluor® 405 Conjugate4034273700010.9110.480.77
Phalloidin-iFluor® 514 Conjugate5115277500010.8310.2650.116
Phalloidin-iFluor® 532 Conjugate5375609000010.6810.260.16
Phalloidin-iFluor® 555 Conjugate55757010000010.6410.230.14
Phalloidin-iFluor® 594 Conjugate58860418000010.5310.050.04
Phalloidin-iFluor® 633 Conjugate64065425000010.2910.0620.044
Phalloidin-iFluor® 647 Conjugate65667025000010.2510.030.03
Phalloidin-iFluor® 680 Conjugate68470122000010.2310.0970.094
Phalloidin-iFluor® 700 Conjugate69071322000010.2310.090.04
Phalloidin-iFluor® 750 Conjugate75777927500010.1210.0440.039
Phalloidin-iFluor® 790 Conjugate78781225000010.1310.10.09
iFluor® 488-streptavidin conjugate4915167500010.910.210.11
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Images


Citations


View all 213 citations: Citation Explorer
m6A Modification Mediates Endothelial Cell Responses to Oxidative Stress in Vascular Aging Induced by Low Fluid Shear Stress
Authors: Xu, Zhijue and Qiu, Peng and Jiang, Yihong and Hu, Jiateng and Wu, Zhaoyu and Lei, Jiahao and Pu, Hongji and Huang, Qun and Wang, Xin and Li, Bo and others,
Journal: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity (2023)
A novel approach to interrogating the effects of chemical warfare agent exposure using organ-on-a-chip technology and multiomic analysis
Authors: Goralski, Tyler DP and Jenkins, Conor C and Angelini, Daniel J and Horsmon, Jennifer R and Dhummakupt, Elizabeth S and Rizzo, Gabrielle M and Simmons, Brooke L and Liem, Alvin T and Roth, Pierce A and Karavis, Mark A and others,
Journal: PloS one (2023): e0280883
A positive feedback loop driven by fibronectin and IL-1$\beta$ sustains the inflammatory microenvironment in breast cancer
Authors: Tunali, Gurcan and Yanik, Hamdullah and Ozturk, Suleyman Can and Demirkol-Canli, Secil and Efthymiou, Georgios and Yilmaz, Kerim Bora and Obberghen-Schilling, Van and Esendagli, Gunes and others,
Journal: Breast Cancer Research (2023): 1--13
Characterization of Human, Ovine and Porcine Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Bone Marrow: Critical In Vitro Comparison with Regard to Humans
Authors: Westerkowsky, Elisa Katja and Soares de Almeida, Adriana Marisa and Selle, Michael and Harms, Oliver and Bundkirchen, Katrin and Neunaber, Claudia and Noack, Sandra
Journal: Life (2023): 718
Biotin-dependent cell envelope remodelling is required for Mycobacterium abscessus survival in lung infection
Authors: Sullivan, Mark R and McGowen, Kerry and Liu, Qiang and Akusobi, Chidiebere and Young, David C and Mayfield, Jacob A and Raman, Sahadevan and Wolf, Ian D and Moody, D Branch and Aldrich, Courtney C and others,
Journal: Nature Microbiology (2023): 1--17
Atomic force microscopy--based assessment of multimechanical cellular properties for classification of graded bladder cancer cells and cancer early diagnosis using machine learning analysis
Authors: Zhu, Xinyao and Qin, Rui and Qu, Kaige and Wang, Zuobin and Zhao, Xuexia and Xu, Wei
Journal: Acta Biomaterialia (2023): 358--373
Long term culturing of CHO cells: phenotypic drift and quality attributes of the expressed monoclonal antibody
Authors: Kaur, Rajinder and Jain, Ritu and Budholiya, Niharika and Rathore, Anurag S
Journal: Biotechnology Letters (2023): 1--14
3D printed pore morphology mediates bone marrow stem cell behaviors via RhoA/ROCK2 signaling pathway for accelerating bone regeneration
Authors: Lu, Qiji and Diao, Jingjing and Wang, Yingqu and Feng, Jianlang and Zeng, Fansen and Yang, Yan and Kuang, Yudi and Zhao, Naru and Wang, Yingjun
Journal: Bioactive Materials (2023): 413--424
Mucociliary Wnt signaling promotes cilia biogenesis and beating
Authors: Seidl, Carina and Da Silva, Fabio and Zhang, Kaiqing and Wohlgemuth, Kai and Omran, Heymut and Niehrs, Christof
Journal: Nature Communications (2023): 1259
Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis felineus liver flukes affect mammalian host microbiome in a species-specific manner
Authors: Pakharukova, Maria Y and Lishai, Ekaterina A and Zaparina, Oxana and Baginskaya, Nina V and Hong, Sung-Jong and Sripa, Banchob and Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A
Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases (2023): e0011111

References


View all 127 references: Citation Explorer
Improved penile histology by phalloidin stain: circular and longitudinal cavernous smooth muscles, dual-endothelium arteries, and erectile dysfunction-associated changes
Authors: Lin G, Qiu X, F and el TM, Albersen M, Wang Z, Lue TF, Lin CS.
Journal: Urology (2011): 970 e1
Phalloidin perturbs the interaction of human non-muscle myosin isoforms 2A and 2C1 with F-actin
Authors: Diensthuber RP, Muller M, Heissler SM, Taft MH, Chizhov I, Manstein DJ.
Journal: FEBS Lett (2011): 767
pH-(low)-insertion-peptide (pHLIP) translocation of membrane impermeable phalloidin toxin inhibits cancer cell proliferation
Authors: An M, Wijesinghe D, Andreev OA, Reshetnyak YK, Engelman DM.
Journal: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (2010): 20246
Labeling cytoskeletal F-actin with rhodamine phalloidin or fluorescein phalloidin for imaging
Authors: Chazotte B., undefined
Journal: Cold Spring Harb Protoc (2010): pdb prot4947
Protective effect of bile acid derivatives in phalloidin-induced rat liver toxicity
Authors: Herraez E, Macias RI, Vazquez-Tato J, Hierro C, Monte MJ, Marin JJ.
Journal: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol (2009): 21
Effect of Phalloidin on Filaments Polymerized from Heart Muscle Adp-Actin Monomers
Authors: Vig A, Dudas R, Kupi T, Orban J, Hild G, Lorinczy D, Nyitrai M.
Journal: J Therm Anal Calorim (2009): 721
In vitro inhibition of OATP-mediated uptake of phalloidin using bile acid derivatives
Authors: Herraez E, Macias RI, Vazquez-Tato J, Vicens M, Monte MJ, Marin JJ.
Journal: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol (2009): 13
Processing of the phalloidin proprotein by prolyl oligopeptidase from the mushroom Conocybe albipes
Authors: Luo H, Hallen-Adams HE, Walton JD.
Journal: J Biol Chem (2009): 18070
Pygmy squids and giant brains: mapping the complex cephalopod CNS by phalloidin staining of vibratome sections and whole-mount preparations
Authors: Wollesen T, Loesel R, Wanninger A.
Journal: J Neurosci Methods (2009): 63
Anti-acetylated tubulin antibody staining and phalloidin staining in the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis
Authors: Genikhovich G, Technau U.
Journal: Cold Spring Harb Protoc (2009): pdb prot5283