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Phalloidin-Tetramethylrhodamine Conjugate

Chemical structure for Phalloidin-Tetramethylrhodamine Conjugate
Chemical structure for Phalloidin-Tetramethylrhodamine Conjugate
Ordering information
Price ()
Catalog Number23102
Unit Size
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Additional ordering information
Telephone1-408-733-1055
Fax1-408-733-1304
Emailsales@aatbio.com
InternationalSee distributors
ShippingStandard overnight for United States, inquire for international
Physical properties
Molecular weight1300
SolventDMSO
Spectral properties
Correction Factor (260 nm)0.32
Correction Factor (280 nm)0.178
Extinction coefficient (cm -1 M -1)90000
Excitation (nm)552
Emission (nm)578
Storage, safety and handling
Certificate of OriginDownload PDF
H-phraseH301, H311, H331
Hazard symbolT
Intended useResearch Use Only (RUO)
R-phraseR23, R24, R25
StorageFreeze (< -15 °C); Minimize light exposure
UNSPSC12352200
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OverviewpdfSDSpdfProtocol


Molecular weight
1300
Correction Factor (260 nm)
0.32
Correction Factor (280 nm)
0.178
Extinction coefficient (cm -1 M -1)
90000
Excitation (nm)
552
Emission (nm)
578
This orange fluorescent phalloidin conjugate (equivalent to TRITC-labeled phalloidin) selectively binds to F-actins with much higher photostability than the fluorescein-phalloidin conjugates. Used at nanomolar concentrations, phalloidin derivatives are convenient probes for labeling, identifying and quantitating F-actins in formaldehyde-fixed and permeabilized tissue sections, cell cultures or cell-free experiments. Phalloidin binds to actin filaments much more tightly than to actin monomers, leading to a decrease in the rate constant for the dissociation of actin subunits from filament ends, essentially stabilizing actin filaments through the prevention of filament depolymerization. Moreover, phalloidin is found to inhibit the ATP hydrolysis activity of F-actin. Phalloidin functions differently at various concentrations in cells. When introduced into the cytoplasm at low concentrations, phalloidin recruits the less polymerized forms of cytoplasmic actin as well as filamin into stable "islands" of aggregated actin polymers, yet it does not interfere with stress fibers, i.e. thick bundles of microfilaments. The property of phalloidin is a useful tool for investigating the distribution of F-actin in cells by labeling phalloidin with fluorescent analogs and using them to stain actin filaments for light microscopy. Fluorescent derivatives of phalloidin have turned out to be enormously useful in localizing actin filaments in living or fixed cells as well as for visualizing individual actin filaments in vitro. Fluorescent phalloidin derivatives have been used as an important tool in the study of actin networks at high resolution. AAT Bioquest offers a variety of fluorescent phalloidin derivatives with different colors for multicolor imaging applications.

Example protocol


AT A GLANCE

Protocol Summary
  1. Prepare samples in microplate wells
  2. Remove liquid from samples in the plate
  3. Add Phalloidin-Tetramethylrhodamine Conjugate solution (100 μL/well)
  4. Stain the cells at room temperature for 20 to 90 minutes
  5. Wash the cells
  6. Examine the specimen under microscope with TRITC filter 
Important      Warm the vial to room temperature and centrifuge briefly before opening.

Storage and Handling Conditions
The solution should be stable for at least 6 months if store at -20 °C. Protect the fluorescent conjugates from light, and avoid freeze/thaw cycles.
Note     Phalloidin is toxic, although the amount of toxin present in a vial could be lethal only to a mosquito (LD50 of phalloidin = 2 mg/kg), it should be handled with care.

PREPARATION OF WORKING SOLUTION

Phalloidin-Tetramethylrhodamine Conjugate working solution
Add 1 µL of Phalloidin-Tetramethylrhodamine Conjugate solution to 1 mL of PBS with 1% BSA.
Note     The stock solution of phalloidin conjugate should be aliquoted and stored at -20 °C. protected from light.
Note     Different cell types might be stained differently. The concentration of phalloidin conjugate working solution should be prepared accordingly.

SAMPLE EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL

Stain the cells
  1. Perform formaldehyde fixation. Incubate cells with 3.0–4.0 % formaldehyde in PBS at room temperature for 10–30 minutes.
    Note     Avoid any methanol containing fixatives since methanol can disrupt actin during the fixation process. The preferred fixative is methanol-free formaldehyde.
  2. Rinse the fixed cells 2–3 times in PBS.
  3. Optional: Add 0.1% Triton X-100 in PBS into fixed cells for 3 to 5 minutes to increase permeability. Rinse the cells 2–3 times in PBS.
  4. Add 100 μL/well (96-well plate) of Phalloidin-Tetramethylrhodamine Conjugate working solution into the fixed cells, and stain the cells at room temperature for 20 to 90 minutes.
  5. Rinse cells gently with PBS 2 to 3 times to remove excess phalloidin conjugate before plating, sealing and imaging under microscope with TRITC filter set. 

Calculators


Common stock solution preparation

Table 1. Volume of DMSO needed to reconstitute specific mass of Phalloidin-Tetramethylrhodamine Conjugate to given concentration. Note that volume is only for preparing stock solution. Refer to sample experimental protocol for appropriate experimental/physiological buffers.

0.1 mg0.5 mg1 mg5 mg10 mg
1 mM76.923 µL384.615 µL769.231 µL3.846 mL7.692 mL
5 mM15.385 µL76.923 µL153.846 µL769.231 µL1.538 mL
10 mM7.692 µL38.462 µL76.923 µL384.615 µL769.231 µL

Molarity calculator

Enter any two values (mass, volume, concentration) to calculate the third.

Mass (Calculate)Molecular weightVolume (Calculate)Concentration (Calculate)Moles
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Spectrum


Open in Advanced Spectrum Viewer
spectrum

Spectral properties

Correction Factor (260 nm)0.32
Correction Factor (280 nm)0.178
Extinction coefficient (cm -1 M -1)90000
Excitation (nm)552
Emission (nm)578

Product family


NameExcitation (nm)Emission (nm)Extinction coefficient (cm -1 M -1)Correction Factor (280 nm)
Phalloidin-AMCA Conjugate346434190000.153
Phalloidin-Fluorescein Conjugate4985178000010.275
Phalloidin-Biotin Conjugate----

Citations


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Journal: Biology of Reproduction (2022)
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Journal: Biomedical Materials (2021): 065011
Targeted core-shell nanoparticles for precise CTCF gene insert in treatment of metastatic breast cancer
Authors: Duan, Jialun and Bao, Chunjie and Xie, Ying and Guo, Haitao and Liu, Yixuan and Li, Jianwei and Liu, Rui and Li, Peishan and Bai, Jing and Yan, Yan and others,
Journal: Bioactive Materials (2021)
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Authors: Jha, Abhishek and Viswanadh, Matte Kasi and Burande, Ankita Sanjay and Mehata, Abhishesh Kumar and Poddar, Suruchi and Yadav, Kanchan and Mahto, Sanjeev Kumar and Parmar, Avanish Singh and Muthu, Madaswamy S
Journal: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules (2020): 413--425
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Journal: Nanomedicine (2020): 2345--2367
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Journal: European Journal of Immunology (2020)
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Journal: (2020)
A Hepatocellular Carcinoma Targeting Nanostrategy with Hypoxia-Ameliorating and Photothermal Abilities that, Combined with Immunotherapy, Inhibits Metastasis and Recurrence
Authors: Zhou, Tianjun and Liang, Xiaolong and Wang, Peifeng and Hu, Yueyang and Qi, Yafei and Jin, Yushen and Du, Yang and Fang, Chihua and Tian, Jie
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References


View all 127 references: Citation Explorer
Improved penile histology by phalloidin stain: circular and longitudinal cavernous smooth muscles, dual-endothelium arteries, and erectile dysfunction-associated changes
Authors: Lin G, Qiu X, F and el TM, Albersen M, Wang Z, Lue TF, Lin CS.
Journal: Urology (2011): 970 e1
Phalloidin perturbs the interaction of human non-muscle myosin isoforms 2A and 2C1 with F-actin
Authors: Diensthuber RP, Muller M, Heissler SM, Taft MH, Chizhov I, Manstein DJ.
Journal: FEBS Lett (2011): 767
pH-(low)-insertion-peptide (pHLIP) translocation of membrane impermeable phalloidin toxin inhibits cancer cell proliferation
Authors: An M, Wijesinghe D, Andreev OA, Reshetnyak YK, Engelman DM.
Journal: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (2010): 20246
Labeling cytoskeletal F-actin with rhodamine phalloidin or fluorescein phalloidin for imaging
Authors: Chazotte B., undefined
Journal: Cold Spring Harb Protoc (2010): pdb prot4947
Protective effect of bile acid derivatives in phalloidin-induced rat liver toxicity
Authors: Herraez E, Macias RI, Vazquez-Tato J, Hierro C, Monte MJ, Marin JJ.
Journal: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol (2009): 21
Effect of Phalloidin on Filaments Polymerized from Heart Muscle Adp-Actin Monomers
Authors: Vig A, Dudas R, Kupi T, Orban J, Hild G, Lorinczy D, Nyitrai M.
Journal: J Therm Anal Calorim (2009): 721
In vitro inhibition of OATP-mediated uptake of phalloidin using bile acid derivatives
Authors: Herraez E, Macias RI, Vazquez-Tato J, Vicens M, Monte MJ, Marin JJ.
Journal: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol (2009): 13
Processing of the phalloidin proprotein by prolyl oligopeptidase from the mushroom Conocybe albipes
Authors: Luo H, Hallen-Adams HE, Walton JD.
Journal: J Biol Chem (2009): 18070
Pygmy squids and giant brains: mapping the complex cephalopod CNS by phalloidin staining of vibratome sections and whole-mount preparations
Authors: Wollesen T, Loesel R, Wanninger A.
Journal: J Neurosci Methods (2009): 63
Anti-acetylated tubulin antibody staining and phalloidin staining in the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis
Authors: Genikhovich G, Technau U.
Journal: Cold Spring Harb Protoc (2009): pdb prot5283